WWYD? P-75/76 Choose 1 Scenario from the WWYD? section – Answer the question completely using the five-step process. The 5-step Ethical Decision-Making Pro

WWYD? P-75/76 Choose 1 Scenario from the WWYD? section – Answer the question completely using the five-step process.
The 5-step Ethical Decision-Making Pro

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WWYD? P-75/76 Choose 1 Scenario from the WWYD? section – Answer the question completely using the five-step process.
The 5-step Ethical Decision-Making Process is explained fully in your book on Pages 24 – 27. This process is to be used to respond to your WWYD? Assignments. Points will be deducted if your answers do NOT follow this process to analyze the situation and recommend a course of action.The 5-Step Ethical Decision-Making Process is

Develop Problem Statement.
Identify Alternatives.
Choose Alternatives.
Implement Decision.
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E T H I C S I N I N F O R M A T I O N
T E C H N O L O G Y

Sixth Edition

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E T H I C S I N I N F O R M A T I O N
T E C H N O L O G Y

Sixth Edition

George W. Reynolds

Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States

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Ethics in Information Technology,
Sixth Edition
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BRIEF CONTENTS

Preface xiii

Chapter 1 An Overview of Ethics 1

Chapter 2 Ethics for IT Workers and IT Users 43

Chapter 3 Cyberattacks and Cybersecurity 83

Chapter 4 Privacy 133

Chapter 5 Freedom of Expression 185

Chapter 6 Intellectual Property 221

Chapter 7 Ethical Decisions in Software Development 263

Chapter 8 The Impact of Information Technology on Society 299

Chapter 9 Social Media 329

Chapter 10 Ethics of IT Organizations 357

Appendix A A Brief Introduction to Morality 397

Glossary 413

Index 427

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface xiii

Chapter 1 An Overview of Ethics 1
Organizations Behaving Badly 1
What Is Ethics? 3

The Importance of Integrity 5
The Difference Between Morals, Ethics, and Laws 5

Ethics in the Business World 7
Corporate Social Responsibility 10
Why Fostering Corporate Social Responsibility and Good Business Ethics Is Important? 13

Gaining the Goodwill of the Community 13
Creating an Organization That Operates Consistently 14
Fostering Good Business Practices 15
Protecting the Organization and Its Employees from Legal Action 15
Avoiding Unfavorable Publicity 16

How Organizations Can Improve Their Ethics 17
Appoint a Corporate Ethics Officer 18
Require the Board of Directors to Set and Model High Ethical Standards 19
Establish a Corporate Code of Ethics 20
Conduct Social Audits 21
Require Employees to Take Ethics Training 22
Include Ethical Criteria in Employee Appraisals 22
Create an Ethical Work Environment 23

Including Ethical Considerations in Decision Making 24
Develop Problem Statement 24
Identify Alternatives 25
Choose Alternative 26
Implement the Decision 26
Evaluate the Results 26

Ethics in Information Technology 27
Summary 29
Key Terms 30
Self-Assessment Questions 30
Self-Assessment Answers 32
Discussion Questions 33
What Would You Do? 33
Cases 34
End Notes 39

Chapter 2 Ethics for IT Workers and IT Users 43
Organizations Behaving Badly 43
IT Worker Relationships That Must Be Managed 44

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Relationships Between IT Workers and Employers 44
Relationships Between IT Workers and Clients 47
Relationships Between IT Workers and Suppliers 50
Relationships Between IT Workers and Other Professionals 54
Relationships Between IT Workers and IT Users 55
Relationships Between IT Workers and Society 55

Encouraging the Professionalism of IT Workers 56
Professional Codes of Ethics 56
Professional Organizations 57
Certification 59
Licensing of IT Professionals 60

What Can Be Done to Encourage the Ethical Use of IT Resources Among Users? 64
Common Ethical Issues for IT Users 64
Supporting the Ethical Practices of IT Users 66

Summary 70
Key Terms 72
Self-Assessment Questions 72
Self-Assessment Answers 74
Discussion Questions 74
What Would You Do? 75
Cases 76
End Notes 80

Chapter 3 Cyberattacks and Cybersecurity 83
Organizations Behaving Badly 83
The Threat Landscape 85

Why Computer Incidents Are So Prevalent? 86
Types of Exploits 88
Federal Laws for Prosecuting Computer Attacks 99

The CIA Security Triad 100
Implementing CIA at the Organization Level 101
Implementing CIA at the Network Level 107
Implementing CIA at the Application Level 111
Implementing CIA at the End-User Level 112

Response to Cyberattack 114
Incident Notification 114
Protection of Evidence and Activity Logs 115
Incident Containment 115
Eradication 115
Incident Follow-Up 115
Using an MSSP 116
Computer Forensics 117

Summary 119
Key Terms 120
Self-Assessment Questions 121
Self-Assessment Answers 123

viii Table of Contents

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Discussion Questions 123
What Would You Do? 124
Cases 125
End Notes 129

Chapter 4 Privacy 133
Organizations Behaving Badly 133
Privacy Protection and the Law 135

Information Privacy 138
Privacy Laws, Applications, and Court Rulings 138

Key Privacy and Anonymity Issues 157
Consumer Profiling 157
Electronic Discovery 161
Workplace Monitoring 162
Advanced Surveillance Technology 164

Summary 167
Key Terms 170
Self-Assessment Questions 171
Self-Assessment Answers 173
Discussion Questions 173
What Would You Do? 174
Cases 175
End Notes 179

Chapter 5 Freedom of Expression 185
Organizations Behaving Badly 185
First Amendment Rights 187

Obscene Speech 188
Defamation 189

Freedom of Expression: Key Issues 189
Controlling Access to Information on the Internet 190
Internet Censorship 195
Strategic Lawsuit Against Public Participation 196
Anonymity on the Internet 197
John Doe Lawsuits 199
Hate Speech 201
Pornography on the Internet 202
Fake News 205

Summary 208
Key Terms 210
Self-Assessment Questions 210
Self-Assessment Answers 211
Discussion Questions 211
What Would You Do? 213
Cases 214
End Notes 217

Table of Contents ix

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Chapter 6 Intellectual Property 221
Organizations Behaving Badly 221
What Is Intellectual Property? 224

Copyrights 225
Patents 231

Trade Secrets 235
Current Intellectual Property Issues 239

Plagiarism 239
Reverse Engineering 241
Open Source Code 242
Competitive Intelligence 244
Trademark Infringement 246
Cybersquatting 247

Summary 249
Key Terms 252
Self-Assessment Questions 252
Self-Assessment Answers 253
Discussion Questions 254
What Would You Do? 254
Cases 255
End Notes 259

Chapter 7 Ethical Decisions in Software Development 263
Organizations Behaving Badly 263
Software Quality and Why It Is Important 265

The Importance of Software Quality 268
Software Product Liability 269

Strategies for Developing Quality Software 271
Software Development Methodologies 271
Capability Maturity Model Integration 276
Developing Safety-Critical Systems 278
Risk Management 280
Quality Management Standards 282

Summary 286
Key Terms 288
Self-Assessment Questions 289
Self-Assessment Answers 291
Discussion Questions 291
What Would You Do? 292
Cases 293
End Notes 297

Chapter 8 The Impact of Information Technology on Society 299
Organizations Behaving Badly 299
The Impact of IT on the Standard of Living and Worker Productivity 302

IT Investment and Productivity 302
IT and Workplace Automation 305

Artificial Intelligence 306

x Table of Contents

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The Impact of IT on Health Care 309
Computerized Patient Records 311
Clinical Decision Support 313
Computerized Provider Order Entry 313
Telehealth 313

Summary 317
Key Terms 319
Self-Assessment Questions 319
Self-Assessment Answers 321
Discussion Questions 321
What Would You Do? 322
Cases 323
End Notes 326

Chapter 9 Social Media 329
Organizations Behaving Badly 329
What Is Social Media? 330
Social Networking Platforms 331
Business Applications of Social Media 333

Social Media Marketing 334
Social Media in the Hiring Process 336
Improving Customer Service Using Social Media 336
Social Shopping Platforms 337

Social Networking Ethical Issues 338
Cyberabuse, Cyberharassment, and Cyberstalking 338
Encounters with Sexual Predators 341
Uploading of Inappropriate Material 343
Employee Participation on Social Media Networks 343
Miscellaneous Social Media Issues 344

Summary 346
Key Terms 348
Self-Assessment Questions 348
Self-Assessment Answers 350
Discussion Questions 350
What Would You Do? 351
Cases 351
End Notes 354

Chapter 10 Ethics of IT Organizations 357
Organizations Behaving Badly 357
Use of Contingent Workers 359

The Gig Economy 360
Independent Contractors 361
Advantages of Using Contingent Workers 362
Disadvantages of Using Contingent Workers 363
Deciding When to Use Contingent Workers 363

H-1B Workers 365
Using H-1B Workers Instead of U.S. Workers 366

Table of Contents xi

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Gaming the H-1B Visa Program 367
The Need for H-1B Workers 368

Outsourcing 371
Offshore Outsourcing 371
Pros and Cons of Offshore Outsourcing 372
Strategies for Successful Offshore Outsourcing 374

Whistle-Blowing 375
Protection for Whistle-Blowers 375
Whistle-Blowing Protection for Private-Sector Workers 377
Dealing with a Whistle-Blowing Situation 377

Green Computing 380
Summary 383
Key Terms 385
Self-Assessment Questions 385
Self-Assessment Answers 388
Discussion Questions 388
What Would You Do? 389
Cases 390
End Notes 394

Appendix A A Brief Introduction to Morality 397
Introduction 397
The Knotty Question of Goodness 398
Relativism: Why “Common Sense” Won’t Work 399

Egoism versus Altruism 401
Deontology, or the Ethics of Logical Consistency and Duty 402
Happy Consequences, or Utilitarianism 404

Promises and Contracts 406
A Return to the Greeks: The Good Life of Virtue 407

Feminism and the Ethics of Care 409
Pluralism 410
Summary 411

Glossary 413

Index 427

xii Table of Contents

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PREFACE

We are excited to publish the sixth edition of Ethics in Information Technology. This new
edition builds on the success of the previous editions and meets the need for a resource
that helps readers understand many of the legal, ethical, and societal issues associated
with information technology. We have responded to the feedback from our previous
edition adopters, students, and other reviewers to create an improved text. We think you
will be pleased with the results.

Ethics in Information Technology, Sixth Edition, fills a void of practical business
information for business managers and IT professionals. The typical introductory
information systems book devotes one chapter to ethics and IT, which cannot possibly
cover the full scope of ethical issues related to IT. Such limited coverage does not meet
the needs of business managers and IT professionals—the people primarily responsible
for addressing ethical issues in the workplace. What is missing is an examination of the
different ethical situations that arise in IT as well as practical advice for addressing
these issues.

Ethics in Information Technology, Sixth Edition, has enough substance for an
instructor to use it in a full-semester course in computer ethics. Instructors can also
use the book as a reading supplement for such courses as Introduction to Management
Information Systems, Principles of Information Technology, Managerial Perspective of
Information Technology, Computer Security, E-Commerce, and so on.

W H A T ’ S N E W

Ethics in Information Technology, Sixth Edition, has been updated and revised to
incorporate the many new developments and ethical issues that are affecting IT professionals
and influencing professional ethics, such as state licensing of IT professionals;
cyberterrorism and hacktivism; the erosion of privacy due to electronic surveillance;
the positive and negative impacts of social networking; the design and implementation
of safety-critical systems; and the impact of IT on the standard of living, worker
productivity, and health care.

Each chapter opens with a new “Organizations Behaving Badly” real-world scenario
that highlights key issues from the chapter and raises thought-provoking questions.
Critical thinking exercises, also a new feature, are strategically placed at the end of each
major chapter section to encourage the reader to pause, consider, and apply what they’ve
just read. Each chapter ends with a list of key terms and a set of self-assessment questions
that students can use to check their grasp of key points from the chapter. New—and more
varied—end-of-chapter exercises have been added to encourage critical application of
chapter concepts. Students can practice principles they’ve learned with revised Discussion
Questions, and What Would You Do? exercises, as well as all new Cases. Instructors of

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online courses can use this wealth of material as the basis for discussion forums that allow
their online students to share a variety of perspectives and experiences and to create a
learning community. Such discussions provide students the opportunity to more deeply
understand the material while challenging their critical thinking skills. We think you will
like these changes and additions.

O R G A N I Z A T I O N

Each of the 10 chapters in this book addresses a different aspect of ethics in information
technology:

• Chapter 1, “An Overview of Ethics,” introduces ethics, ethics in business,
and the importance of ethics in IT. The distinction between morals, ethics,
and laws is defined. The trends that have increased the likelihood of
unethical behavior are identified. The concept of corporate social responsibility
is defined and discussed. The chapter presents reasons why practicing good
business ethics is important in business. A model for improving corporate ethics
is provided. The most commonly observed types of misconduct in the workplace
are identified. The need for an organizational code of ethics is discussed. Key
steps in establishing a sound ethics program are outlined. The role of the chief
ethics officer and board of directors in establishing a strong organizational ethics
program is examined. A useful model for ethical decision making is provided.
The chapter ends with a discussion of the role of ethics in IT.

• Chapter 2, “Ethics for IT Workers and IT Users,” explains the importance
of ethics in the business relationships of IT professionals, including those
between IT workers and employers, clients, suppliers, other professionals,
IT users, and society. The chapter provides suggestions for what can be
done to encourage the professionalism of IT workers by emphasizing the
significance of IT professional organizations and their codes of ethics as
well as certification and licensing. Some ethical issues faced by IT users are
discussed, including software piracy, inappropriate use of computing
resources, and inappropriate sharing of information. Actions that can be
taken to encourage the ethical use of IT resources by end-users are outlined.
The chapter introduces the topic of internal control and compliance and the
role the audit committee and members of the internal audit team have in
ensuring that both the IT organization and IT users follow organizational
guidelines and policies, as well as various legal and regulatory practices.

• Chapter 3, “Cyberattacks and Cybersecurity,” describes the types of ethical
decisions that IT professionals must make, as well as the business needs they
must balance when dealing with security issues. The chapter identifies the
most common computer-related security incidents and provides numerous
reasons why such incidents are increasing. This chapter includes information
on the use of cloud computing, virtualization software, and bring your own
device corporate business policies. It describes some of the more common
hacker attacks, including ransomware, viruses, worms, Trojan horses,
blended threats, distributed denial-of-service, rootkits, advanced persistent

xiv Preface

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threats, spam, phishing, spear-phishing, smishing, and vishing. Cyberespionage
and cyberterrorism are also covered including the roles of the United States
Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) and the Department of
Homeland Security in defending against cyberterrorism. In addition to
providing a useful classification of computer crimes and their perpetrators,
the chapter summarizes the major federal laws that address computer
crime. The chapter introduces the concept of the CIA triad (confidentiality,
integrity, and availability) and outlines steps to implement this concept
throughout the organization at all levels. The chapter discusses the need
for a corporate security policy and offers both a process for establishing a
security policy and several security-related policy templates that can help
an organization to quickly develop effective security policies. A process
for performing an assessment of an organization’s IT resources from both
internal and external threats is presented. Useful guidelines are provided
on how to respond to specific security incidents to quickly resolve problems
and improve ongoing security measures.

• Chapter 4, “Privacy,” explains how the use …

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