Writning Assignment An article on overcrowded classrooms Refer to St. Thomas University Dissertation Publication Manual throughout the writing process.

Writning Assignment An article on overcrowded classrooms Refer to St. Thomas University Dissertation Publication Manual throughout the writing

process.

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Writning Assignment An article on overcrowded classrooms Refer to St. Thomas University Dissertation Publication Manual throughout the writing

process.

Model Title Page

Title of the Quantitative/Qualitative Dissertation

By: Author’s Name

Date of the Defense

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Doctor of Education degree

St. Thomas University

Miami Gardens, Florida

Approved:

__________________________

(name of chair, highest earned degree, title, and affiliation)

Committee Chair

__________________________

(name of chair, highest earned degree, title, and affiliation)

Committee Member

__________________________

(name of chair, highest earned degree, title, and affiliation)

Committee Member

Commented [Dr. KM1]: This dissertation Rubric should
be used to help you draft your dissertation using the

qualitative or quantitative dissertation templates separately

provided . Do not draft your chapters on this rubric but use

the templates.

Commented [Dr. KM2]:
The title page is not numbered
There is no running header in dissertation documents
There should be no additional chapter sections unless your
chair approves.

Commented [Dr. KM3]: Title should reflect method or
design and some sense of geographic scope of the study

along with key study variables and/or constructs] no more

than 12-15 words

Copyright 2020 by Jane Doe

All Rights Reserved

Copyright Acknowledgement Form

St. Thomas University

I, the writer’s full name, understand that I am solely responsible for the content of this

dissertation and its use of copyrighted materials. All copyright infringements and issues

are solely the responsibly of myself as the author of this dissertation and not St. Thomas

University, its programs, or libraries.

______________________________

_______________________

Signature of Author Date

______________________________

_______________________

Witness (Type Name Here) Date

St. Thomas University Library Release Form

Title of Dissertation

Author’s Name

I understand that US Copyright Law protects this dissertation against unauthorized use.

By my signature below, I am giving permission to St. Thomas University Library to place

this dissertation in its collections in both print and digital forms for open access to the

wider academic community. I am also allowing the Library to photocopy and provide a

copy of this dissertation for the purpose of interlibrary loans for scholarly purposes and to

migrate it to other forms of media for archival purposes.

________________________

_____________________

Signature of Author Date

________________________

_____________________

Witness (Type Name Here) Date

Abstract

The target length of the abstract in St. Thomas University doctoral dissertations is 250

words formatted in one double-spaced paragraph (do not create a justified right margin).

Guidelines for development of the abstract can be found in the APA Publication Manual

Edition currently used by the university. Note that the Abstract page has no page number

and “Abstract” does not appear in the Table of Contents.

Delete this text but do not delete the section break that follows this paragraph; it is

necessary for correct pagination—if you can’t see it, click on the ¶Show/Hide button on

the formatting toolbar.

Additions to abstract?

Commented [Dr. KM4]: Abstract is one page, double
spaced with no indentation and no paragraph breaks.

iii

Acknowledgments

This page is typically included in a dissertation. Refer to the Dissertation

Publication Manual regarding who should be acknowledged on this page. The

“Acknowledgments” entry does appear in the Table of Contents.

Commented [Dr. KM5]: Acknowledgment does not
exceed 1 page in length and is drafted after Ch 5 is complete

iv

Dedication

Refer to the Dissertation Publication Manual regarding who should be

acknowledged in a dedication (this page is often included, although not required, in a

dissertation). The Dedication page is numbered, but “Dedication” does not appear in the

Table of Contents.

v

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments iv

List of Tables

List of Charts or Graphs

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Introduction to the Problem (Hit Tab to add page numbers)

Background, Context, and Theoretical Framework

Statement of the Problem

Purpose of the Study

Research Questions

Rationale, Relevance, and Significance of the Study

Nature of the Study

Definition of Terms

Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations

Chapter 1 Summary

(Format Note: These entries are not connected to the text via the “Index and Tables”

feature of Microsoft Word.)

vi

CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction to the Literature Review

Theoretical Framework

Review of Research Literature and Methodological Literature

Chapter 2 Summary

CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY

Introduction to Chapter 3

Research Design

Target Population, Sampling Method, and Related Procedures

Instrumentation

Data Collection

Field Test

Pilot Test

Operationalization of Variables

Data Analysis Procedures

Limitations of the Research Design

Internal Validity

External Validity

Expected Findings

Ethical Issues

Chapter 3 Summary

vii

CHAPTER 4. DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

Introduction

Description of the Sample

Summary of the Results

Detailed Analysis

Chapter 4 Summary

CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION

Introduction

Summary of the Results

Discussion of the Results

Discussion of the Results in Relation to the Literature

Limitations

Implication of the Results for Practice

Recommendations for Further Research

Conclusion

APPENDICES

REFERENCES

viii

List of Tables

Table 1. Add title (single-space table titles; double-space between entries) xx

ix

List of Figures

Figure 1. Add title (single-space figure titles; double-space between entries) xx

(Note: Do not remove the section break that follows this paragraph.)

1

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Introduction to the Problem

The introduction to the problem section of Chapter 1 presents the problem to be

addressed by the dissertation research that is worthy of further investigation. The

introduction should present the problem or research focus for the study, briefly describe

the nature and purpose of the study, present the guiding research questions, and explain

the significance of and justification for conducting the study. It should also explain how

this study will contribute to the existing knowledge about the problem or research focus.

The introduction to the problem must introduce the reader to the problem in a concise yet

complete manner and establish why the problem is worthy of further investigation.

1. Provide the reader with a clear understanding of the problem in a concise yet
complete manner

2. Demonstrate that the problem is worthy of further investigation

3. Briefly describe how the study will be done

4. Present the guiding research question or hypothesis for the study

5. Explain how this study can contribute to the existing knowledge about the
problem or research focus

6. Describe how the study will address something that is not already known or
has not been studied before

7. Describe how the study is new or different from other studies in some way

8. Describe how the study extends prior research on the topic in some way

9. Describe how the study will fill a gap in existing literature or research

Background, Context and Theoretical Framework of the Study.

The background, context, and theoretical framework of the study should tell the

reader what has happened in the past to create the problem or need today. It is a brief

historical overview that answers these questions: What do we know? What created the

problem? When did the problem begin, and for whom is it a problem? What research has

been done?

This section provides information necessary to allow the reader to understand the

background of the problem and context in which the problem occurs. The primary

objectives in writing this section are (a) to provide a brief overview of research related to

the problem; (b) to identify and describe the key components, elements, aspects, concepts

Commented [Dr. KM6]: Page numbering for Chapter 1
begins with page 1

2

of the problem; (c) to provide the reader with an understanding of how the problem arose

and the specific context within which the problem is occurring; and (d) to briefly

introduce the reader to the theoretical framework and how that framework either supports

the proposed study or provides a theoretical context for developing the research problem.

The length of this section will depend on the complexity of the problem. Many learner-

researchers first develop a working draft of the literature review (Chapter 2), since a good

portion of this section is a brief summary of the related literature. Typically, background

sections are five to eight paragraphs but can be longer for more complex problems or for

problems that have an extensive history of investigation.

The context for the study refers to the physical setting of the research and the

natural or artificial (simulated) properties of that setting. In some research these

properties are called “experimental conditions” or “study environment.”

This section should introduce the theory that will provide support and justification

for your study. It will be used to briefly introduce the primary theoretical topics that will

be developed in detail in Chapter 2.

The purpose of the theoretical framework is to tie the dissertation together. As the

researcher, you should approach the proposed research from a theory or set of theories

that provide the backdrop for the work (researchers do not create theory; they use

established theory in which to embed their work). This section should describe how this

study will relate to existing theories and discuss how the methodology being used in the

study links to those theories. Questions to answer: Is the theoretical foundation strong?

Are the theoretical sources apparent? Are they appropriate for the topic? Do they need

further explanation? Further, the theoretical framework describes a context within which

to locate the intended project and suggests why doing such a study is worthwhile. The

theoretical framework justifies the methods you plan to use for conducting the study and

presents how this research will contribute to the body of knowledge and/or practice.

1. Describe why the study is being conducted

2. Provide a brief overview of research related to the problem

3. Identify and describe the key components, elements, aspects, concepts of the
problem

4. Describe who or what is impacted by the problem or research focus

5. Provide the reader with an understanding of how the problem arose and the
specific context within which the problem is occurring

6. Briefly introduce the reader to the theoretical framework and how that
framework either supports the proposed study or provides a theoretical

context for developing the research problem

7. Describe the research methods planned for the study

8. Justify the research methods planned for the study

Statement of the Problem.

3

Begin this section with a problem statement—It is not known” OR “There is a gap

in the literature regarding” followed by “how . . . ” (qualitative) OR “to what extent . . . ”

(quantitative). This succinct statement must clearly define what is to be measured in the

study: the problem or need for education and/or society that you are interested in or that

concern you. The statement needs to be clear and express what the problem is. Indicate

either what is not known or what is wrong. What problem exists for education and/or

society? What do we not know? What is the need we are trying to address? Do we need

more research? Do we need to increase our understanding of the problem? Do we need to

find ways to solve it? It is the magnitude and importance of the problem that makes the

study worth doing.

The problem statement, the purpose statement, and primary or central research

question will vary only slightly in their wording, but the essence of each should be

identical and uniform for all three sections. The problem statement will lead to the

purpose statement, which in turn will lead to the primary or central research question.

The problem statement will clarify, outline, limit, and bring into being a distinct image of

the problem to be investigated. The most effective problem statements are (a) expressed

simply, (b) to the point, and (c) clear in stating the nature of the problem.

This section clearly states the research problem to be addressed, the population

affected, and how the study will contribute to addressing the problem/filling the gap in

the literature. A well-written problem statement also clearly communicates the

significance, magnitude, and importance of the problem.

1. Begin with a clear declarative statement that begins with “It is not known how
and to what degree/extent…..” or “There is a gap in the literature regarding ….

2. Describe the general problem

3. Identify the need for the study and why it is of concern to the researcher.

4. Tell the reader what needs to be discovered or what is wrong that needs to be
fixed.

5. Answer the questions: What don’t we know? What is the need we are trying to
address? Do we need more research? Do we need to increase our

understanding of the problem? Do we need to find ways to solve it?

6. Clearly describe the magnitude and importance of the problem.

Purpose of the Study

Begin this section by stating the purpose of your study (e.g., “The purpose of the

study is to . . . in order to . . .”). Within the larger problem or need, this is the part

that you are going to study. Ask the questions: What are you going to do, describe,

predict, improve, or explain? What needs to be done? Are you going to find out who is

affected and how (descriptive), what characteristics/phenomena are associated with the

problem (prediction), what factors contribute to the problem (explanation), and/or what

programs and services are needed to address the problem (improve)?

4

Example:Þ The purpose of this study is to examine the attitudes, practices, and

barriers [interesting terms—each will need to be defined and examined carefully as

related to the explanation of your study] of parental involvement as perceived by middle

school teachers and parents.Ü

The purpose statement should either (a) end with an “in order to” conclusion so that your

reader understands why the research is being proposed, or (b) have a second sentence

explaining why the research is being proposed (what goal will the study accomplish?)

1. Begin with a declarative statement, “The purpose of this study is….” that
identifies the research design, population, variables to be studied and

geographic location in context

2. Describe what needs to be done with the problem or research focus
identified so far

3. Relate the current study to what needs to be done with the problem or
research focus

4. Identify research method as qualitative, quantitative, or mixed.

5. Explain why this study is necessary to address the problem or to advance the
research focus

6. Specify how the results of the study can contribute to this field

Research Questions or Hypotheses.

In this section the researcher narrows the focus of the study. The questions are

derived from the problem statement. Within the general purpose of the study, what are

the specific questions the research will attempt to answer? If quantitative, state the

research question(s) and the hypotheses that will be researched. Quantitative research

may have one question or several questions. One way of organizing research questions is

identify a primary research question followed by additional or sub-questions. The

primary research question should flow logically from the problem statement and purpose

statement and be very similar in wording although phrased as a question. If there is no

primary research question, simply list all of the research questions. Sequence the

questions by priority and by listing those questions first that best align to the problem and

purpose statements. Follow testable quantitative research questions with an alternative

hypothesis and the null hypotheses. Non-testable research questions will not have

hypotheses.

When creating a research question for each hypothesis, follow these steps:

• Creating a research question for each hypothesis by rephrasing each
hypothesis from “There is . . . .” to “Is there . . . ?”

• Place each research question before the corresponding hypotheses.
You may present a paragraph prior to listing the research question or hypothesis.

Minimally, you will need a lead-in phrase to introduce the questions. Example:Þ The

following research questions/hypotheses guide this study.Ü

Quantitative Studies

5

R1: Format the questions and hypotheses either as normal paragraphs with an

indented first line or else with a hanging indent (as in question 2, below).

H0:

H1:

R2: Format the questions and hypotheses either as normal paragraphs with an

indented first line (as in question 1, above) or else with a hanging indent.

H0:

H2:

Qualitative Studies

For qualitative research, develop a central research question that mirrors the

statement of the problem and purpose statement, but is phrased as a question rather than a

statement. Follow the central research question by any additional or corollary research

questions.

1. State the research questions and/or hypotheses at the level aimed at a general
audience

2. Relate the research questions and/or hypotheses to the stated
problem/research focus

3. Are the research questions and rationale presented in a discussion context,
rather than simply stated or listed.

4. Discuss the feasibility of answering the research questions with the data being
collected

Significance of the Study.

This section must clearly justify the methods the researcher plans to use for conducting

the study. It provides a description of the need for the study and provides a rationale or

need for studying an issue or phenomenon. It should enhance the reader’s understanding

of how this research will contribute to the existing body of knowledge and/or practice.

Determining the significance of the study is highly beneficial on many levels.

How will your research help solve the problem, fill a need, or add to what we know about

the problem? Determining who will benefit from the study and creating justification of

the study will provide relevance, while at the same time increasing its significance and

contributions to theory, practice, knowledge, fields, professions, and/or stakeholders.

Example:Þ This study examines attitudes, practices, and barriers of fifth through

eighth grade teachers and parents regarding parental involvement. The information

presented in this study could aid administrators and teachers in developing and

6

implementing initiatives that promote and increase middle level parental involvement,

enhance the school and family partnership, and ultimately increase student performance

and academic success.Ü

Organize this section with three subsections—Rationale, Relevance, and

Significance. This will leave no doubt in the reader’s mind regarding which issue/topic is

covered by each section. These three sections are very important and provide readers,

including committee members, all necessary elements to make a judgment regarding the

potential significance of your proposed study. Your proposed study must be relevant to

your specialization at St. Thomas University.

Rationale for the Proposed Study

The proposed study is needed because . . . Why is the study being proposed?

What practice problem does this proposed study address, provide a solution, or help to

solve? Why is the research problem important? To whom is the research problem

important? How has this proposed study emerged from the relevant research, theory and

knowledge in your field or discipline? Who are the researchers or content experts calling

for this research? Who has asked for this new knowledge or acknowledged existence of a

gap in the research literature (which researchers, authorities, content experts)? Will the

new knowledge the study generates revise, extend, or create new knowledge? For whom?

Relevance of the Study

What is the relevance to your specialization (leadership)? Be sure to identify your

specialization (e.g., postsecondary and adult education, professional studies, P-12

leadership, business, law, etc). What is the potential value of your findings to

practitioners in your specialization?

Significance of the Study

What is the value of the proposed study to the scientific community? Will your

proposed study serve to begin to close a gap in knowledge? How will the new knowledge

produced as a result of this proposed study contribute to, test, advance, refine, evaluate,

or challenge existing theory or research? Will your proposed study begin to bridge a

debate or controversy in the literature? Will your completed study impel further research?

1. Clearly justify the research methods planned for this study

2. Enhance the reader’s understanding of how this research will contribute to
the body of knowledge and/or practice.

3. Describe the context within which to locate the intended project

4. Describe why doing this study is worthwhile.

5. Describe the need for this study

6. Describe the motivation for the study

7. Describe the predicted results.

7

8. Describe the real-world impact/influence of the predicted results.

9. Explain the implications

10.

11.

Nature of the Study.

In this section you indicate the research approach that will be used to answer the research

questions—the overview of the methodology. Why are you choosing a qualitative or

quantitative study? (Refer back to what is known and not known, the purpose of your

study, and your research questions.) Briefly, who will you study and how will you collect

the data?

The nature of the study section provides your reader a brief overview of your

proposed methodology (quantitative, qualitative, research) and the specific research

design (e.g., case study, narrative, correlational, basic descriptive qualitative, case

phenomenological). Begin this section by briefly introducing the research methodology

and specific research design being proposed (this will be elaborated in Chapter 3).

Examples:Þ (a) A predictive correlational study is proposed in order to . . . . (b) A quasi-

experimental design will be conducted in order

to . . . . Ü Provide a brief overview of the research design so your reader understands

exactly what research design you are proposing.

Conclude this section by providing a brief rationale or justification for the

methodology and research design you selected in light of the context for inquiry, using

support from the literature. Draw your support for the appropriateness of your

methodology and research design from the methodology literature and cite published

research regarding your research problem. Detail and emphasize how your methodology

and research design approach are the most appropriate for the research problem, purpose,

research question, and data being collected. The nature of the study section typically is

three to five paragraphs.

1. Provide a brief, yet comprehensive overview of the research methodology that
will be used in the study.

2. Explain to the reader why a qualitative or quantitative methodology was
chosen for the study.

3.

4. Refer back to what is known and not known, the purpose for the study,
rationale, and the essential research questions or hypotheses.

5. Discuss why the selected design is the best design to address the problem
statement, purpose, and research questions as compared to other designs.

The Definition of Terms.

8

Defining key terms helps to establish the parameters of the study variables. All

terms must be properly cited. Do not use Wikipedia or a generic dictionary or

encyclopedia for your definitions. In the definition of terms, define (a) technical terms

and any words or phrases that have unusual or a restricted meaning; (b) concepts, words,

and phrases that may have ambiguous meaning (e.g., if a researcher is repeatedly using

an ambiguous expression or term such as “engaging,” define this word); (c) for

quantitative research, define the variables as well as the relationships between the

variables and the research question (see the detailed explanation below); and (d) for

qualitative research, define the constructs, characteristics, or conditions necessary to

provide your reader conceptual clarity (see the detailed explanation below). The

definition of terms section aids the reader in understanding how specific terms are being

used. Although it makes sense to draw definitions from the literature, the researcher

ultimately establishes the definition that best fits the researcher’s conceptualization of the

term in light of the research problem, research design, and so on.

Please note that in Chapter 1 you will provide conceptual definitions. In Chapter 3

of a quantitative study, you will provide operational definitions through the

operationalizing of your constructs and variables. For example, if you are conducting a

study on teacher engagement, you might want to define the term. However, in Chapter 3

you might operationalize teacher engagement as a composite score calculated by adding a

respondent’s values to 20 items on a teacher engagement instrument.

You must have an introductory statement prior to listing and defining the terms,

as in the following example:

Example:Þ There are a number of terms that are important to this study. As such,

the following terms are operationally defined:

The first term. Italicize the term and end with a period. Add the definition. Format

each term as a normal paragraph with an indented first line. Make sure each definition is

cited (Author, 2020).

The second term. List the terms alphabetically. Define and cite each word

(Author, 2020).Ü

1. Adequately define constructs investigated in the study

2. Provide an operational definition to terms and phrases used in a unique way

3. Define the study variables at the level of a general reader.

4. Define terms and jargons used in the current study and in the research area at
the level of a general reader.

5. All definitions are supported with valid source citations or clearly identified as
operationally defined for the purpose of this study?

Assumptions, Limitations and Delimitations.

Assumptions

9

Assumptions are aspects of the study that the researcher takes for granted, such as

the problem, background, sample, instrument, underlying theory, methodology, ethical

considerations, and so on. Therefore, within the assumptions discussion, identify all your

assumptions regarding the proposed study. Write in the third person. Example: ÞAn

assumption underlying the study includes the potential honesty and candidness of the

participants regarding . . . .Ü Assumptions may include basic principles that are

accepted as being true on the basis of logic or reason, without proof or verification.

Describe your methodological assumptions. Describe your theoretical assumptions.

Describe your topic-specific assumptions. Describe your assumptions regarding your

proposed sample. Describe your assumptions regarding your instrument(s) or qualitative

protocols you will use. Identify potential ethical considerations and your assumptions

regarding them. You must have an introductory statement prior to listing the assumptions.

The following is an example of how to organize this section:

Example:Þ The following assumptions will be present in this study:

1. Using the Numbering icon on the formatting toolbar, format numbered
lists with a hanging indent.

2. xx . . . .Ü
Limitations

Limitations reflect weaknesses or potential weaknesses in the proposed study.

Consider your instrument, your sample, your analysis, or any other aspect of the proposed

study for which there might be an inherent or potential weakness. Are …

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