Week 3 – Discussion 1 Facebook, email, electronic commerce, and collaborative sites for both work and leisure are a normal part of our everyday computing a

Week 3 – Discussion 1 Facebook, email, electronic commerce, and collaborative sites for both work and leisure are a normal part of our everyday computing a

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Week 3 – Discussion 1 Facebook, email, electronic commerce, and collaborative sites for both work and leisure are a normal part of our everyday computing activities. Personal information entered on these websites become partially owned by the sites themselves. Deleting items never really gets rid of them. 100-150 Words

After reading this week’s course materials, describe what Internet users should know about one of the following topics:

What should you know about website privacy?
How do you know when an online transaction is secure?
Why is Anti-spyware software important to my online security?

After your primary post, respond to at least two of your classmates’. (2-3 Sentences)

Post 1

Hello class,

I chose the following topic for my discussion.

Why is Anti-spyware software important to my online security?

Anti-spyware is very vital to online security because of it’s purpose. This particular software is used to scan and detect spyware on your computer. Not only will it detect these viruses and/or Trojan horses but it will remove them or advise the user to do so. I know from experience that once a virus has corrupted your computer, it can be very frustrating getting rid of it. Viruses and worms that have taken their place on your computer cause lots of damage and even open up room for potentially even more viruses. It is very difficult sometimes to handle but anti-spyware will do the trick to aid and prevent and will keep your privacy secure. 9/13/2021 Print

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Chapter 4

Productivity Applications

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Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to complete the following:

Summarize the development of word processing, the importance of Microsoft® Word, and its
alternatives.
Analyze the key features of PowerPoint® and presentation software.
Describe the importance of Microsoft® Excel™ and spreadsheets.
Explain how databases work and alternatives to Microsoft® Access®.
Evaluate the different types of multimedia applications.
Describe mobile applications and their importance.

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Chapter 5

The Web of Knowledge

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to complete the following:

Explain the key Internet basics.
Describe the various aspects of a network and the key networking terms.
Summarize the browser wars and the most common browsers.
Describe how to build a Web page in six easy steps.
List the Web accessibility standards.

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Introduction
You are the Internet. While you might think the Internet—officially defined as a vast worldwide connection of computer networks that also link smaller
networks—is more about computers than people, this is not necessarily true. Without people, all of these computer connections would be sitting silently,
with little meaning or purpose to their existence. The essential ingredient that makes the Internet revolutionary is that people enter into it each day, and
they leave a footprint of knowledge and of themselves as they travel through the Web. Each time you purchase a new computer (a desktop computer, a
laptop, a cell phone, and so on) and get connected, you create a new link to this worldwide Internet community and become the newest member of the
global population. This becomes a window for you to see and communicate with every other online computer user on the planet, and it allows you to make
your own contribution to the vast web of knowledge that is now growing at an exponential pace (Okin, 2005, p. 21). This chapter will introduce you to the
Internet, discuss the programs you can use to navigate through it on your desktop and mobile devices, and describe how to create your own content.
Welcome to the Web of knowledge.

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5.1 Internet Basics
Computers during the 1960s had a curious problem. Although the mainframes were growing ever larger and more powerful, and computer languages were
enabling programmers to perform more complex computations, there was a significant limitation. It was completely impossible for one computer to talk to
another. A message could not be sent between two computers in the same room, let alone two computers in different countries. A computer was an
isolated machine, alone and separated from the rest of the world, as were the users. This situation would soon change so dramatically that in the coming
decades, nearly every computer in the entire world would become connected to every other computer. This section will discuss how this network became a
reality.

ARPAnet

The Internet had its beginnings as the ARPAnet during the 1960s, when the Cold War threat was at its peak. ARPA, the United States Defense
Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency, was focused on the nation’s computer security. The ARPA network was designed as a way to link
computers at laboratories across the country for the purpose of sharing computing resources (Hafner & Lyon, 1996). Once exclusively the domain of
scientists at elite universities such as UCLA, MIT, and Stanford, this computer network has now gone mainstream.

While there is some debate about the reasons for developing the ARPAnet, it was first and foremost an excellent idea whose time had come. Computers
simply needed to talk to each other, and the technology had advanced to the point where this became possible. But the ARPAnet also had a defense
component. The 1960s was the heart of the Cold War period, an era when the Soviet Union and the United States were building massive arsenals of
nuclear weapons and pointing them at each other. In a world where nuclear war could easily eliminate an entire city in the blink of an eye, how could a
nation ensure communications were maintained in such a doomsday scenario? A communications network that was centralized in one place was
vulnerable to attack. But if you could decentralize that network, spreading communications and content among the computers throughout the United
States, then command and control could be preserved in a nuclear war (Rabinovitz, 2004, p. 10). We will see how this could happen later in this chapter
when we discuss packet switching. Thus, ARPAnet solved a fundamental communications problem for computers, and helped guarantee a secure
communications network for the United States during the Cold War. But it also paved the way for an even more revolutionary development.

A Web of Computers

Today, the ARPAnet has disappeared, officially becoming extinct in 1989 when the Internet—which has become a massive public and private web,
connecting millions of people together and supplying them with an apparently limitless amount of information—replaced it. The best way to think about the
Internet is to use the metaphor of a web. Just as a spider’s web is both a random and a defined pattern (with its threads connecting and strengthening
itself), the Internet is a connection of computer networks that link to each other all over the world. What are these connections? Instead of the spider’s
thread, standard copper telephone lines and coaxial cable (the type of wire typically used to receive a television signal) connect the Internet. Newer, faster,
and more efficient ways of connecting computers have also been developed in recent years. This includes fiber optic cable and satellite connections.
Connections to the Internet now also include the wireless kind, which we will discuss later in this chapter.

Packets

What is being sent through all of these connections? Packets of information. A packet is a small quantity of information represented in binary form as a
series of zeros and ones. The way it finds its path from the sender’s computer to its destination is through a technique called packet switching. Each
message is essentially subdivided into smaller “packets” of data and then “routed” to the next relay point in a communication path, as shown in Figure 5.1.
The idea of packet switching and routing actually dates back to the use of telegraphs during the 19th century. If you were on the East Coast and wanted to
telegraph a message to the West Coast, there was no direct connection. Telephones did not yet exist. So, the telegraph operator on the East Coast sent
the letter through Morse code (a series of dots and dashes, which is eerily similar to binary coding today) to an intermediary, which was the nearest direct
connection. This intermediary might be located in Pennsylvania. The information at this switching center forwarded the message on to another center, and
eventually the telegraph message found its way to the intended destination on the West Coast. The other interesting aspect of this communication system
was that a copy of the message was kept at each of these centers, so if a problem occurred along the way, the operators could backtrack, find the
message, and resend. This is technically called Store and Forward Packet Switching (Campbell-Kelly & Aspray, 1996, pp. 290–292).

Figure 5.1: Packet switching

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Data moves through the Internet with packet switching technology. This allows a message to be sent
through the Internet by being broken up into different “packets,” which are sent to the same
destination via different routes (or nodes).

Nodes

The basis of the telegraph system is exactly the same principle that is used for the Internet. Each computer in the world is not directly connected to every
other one. Not only would this be physically impractical, but it also would be impossible to easily add new computers to the system. That’s why the
ARPAnet designers decided to borrow the old telegraph packet switching principle. There was a backbone of nodes (a node is any device that is
connected to the Internet) that acted as automatic packet switching centers. If one of these nodes became busy (or, for example, was eliminated during a
disaster such as a nuclear war), then the packets could be easily rerouted along a different path. Sometimes, a long message was broken into several
packets that actually traveled through different nodes to eventually reach the destination.

Protocols

This routing system is controlled through established protocols, which refers to the way computers talk to each other (Okin, 2005, p. 20). There are many
different Internet protocols, such as those that define how an instant message or email is sent, or how a file is uploaded or downloaded to your computer.
One example of this is HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), which defines how Web content is transmitted. You can see the letters HTTP in front of every
Internet browser address line. It is the destination computer’s responsibility to receive all of these packets and put them together in the correct order. Users
never realize this is happening, and the speed is incredible.

Modems

How do you send and receive these packets of information? By means of a computer modem. The U.S. military made the first modems in the 1950s to
communicate data related to air defense. The word itself was a new one that combined the terms modulator and demodulator. Essentially, what a modem
does is convert the data you create on your computer (in its digital form of ones and zeros) into sound (electrical impulses). These were originally carried or
transmitted through standard telephone lines. The modem also works in the opposite way. It can receive these electrical impulses from the outside world
and convert them into digital data that appears as images, text, or numbers on your computer. More recently, modems are being replaced by faster
technology that is all digital. There are several types of Internet connections.

Cable Modem

A cable modem is typically the fastest connection, meaning it can transfer more data per second than almost any other type of home Internet connection.
An Ethernet wire is connected to the cable modem box, which is then connected via a coaxial cable to the round jack in your wall. Once you set up and pay
for an Internet plan through your cable provider, you are ready to access the Internet. This links you to the larger Internet grid that often transmits data
through fiber optic cable. If you do not want the cable company involved, you could opt for a DSL or Digital Subscriber Line that connects you to the
Internet through standard telephone lines. In a later section, we’ll discuss the speed comparison between these options.

Wi-Fi

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Packet switching allows large amounts of data to travel from one point
to another without clogging a network. Used with radio waves and then
telephone lines, packet switching ultimately lead to the development of
the World Wide Web.

Once you select a cable or DSL connection in your home, you might want to also create a Wi-Fi connection. The name Wi-Fi means wireless fidelity and
is intentionally similar to the term Hi-Fi or high fidelity that once described high-end home stereo systems. With a Wi-Fi connection in your home, you can
connect multiple Internet devices (laptop, smartphone, tablet, or even a game system such as an Xbox® or a Wii™) wirelessly to your main Internet
connection. Smartphones will typically connect to a Wi-Fi zone, as this will reduce their cell tower data usage, which is typically limited each month. More
on the topic of wireless Internet connections will be covered later.

Packet Switching

Questions to Consider

1. Why is the Internet important?
2. Where is the Internet?
3. What is a definition of the Internet?
4. What does ARPA stand for, and what is its relationship to the modern Internet?
5. What are some of the ways that computers are connected to the Internet?
6. What is a packet?
7. What is the difference between a node and a protocol?
8. What does HTTP stand for?
9. What is the name of the computer device that is both a modulator and demodulator, and what is its function?

Packet
Switching
From Title:

Virtual World: Quirky Science
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In a client/server network, a powerful computer server controls the
individual networked workstations, or clients. Network administrator
positions involve working on both servers and clients. Does such a job
appeal to you?

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

5.2 Networks
While in the past, connecting a personal computer to a network might have been a nice feature, today it is essential. Without a network connection, you
would not be able to attend online school, chat with your friends, or successfully compete in the workplace. Networks are the lifeblood of computing in the
21st century. Most businesses find them essential for sharing files and information among employees, developing collaborative projects, and sharing the
use of applications. The network enables computers to share hardware. For example, instead of having a printer connected to each computer, in a network
all the computers can share the same printer. And after the workday is over, you can retreat to a friend’s house with your laptop to engage in some
multiplayer networked computer games.

In this section, we will look more closely at terms and configurations involving networks. While the Internet is most commonly thought of when people hear
the word network, other types of networks also exist. In all forms, however, a network at its most basic level occurs anytime there are two or more
computers that are linked together through either a wire (Ethernet) or a wireless connection (Odom, 2004).

Basic Network Terminology

If you have several computers at work or home that are connected together, this is called a local area network (LAN). Computers that are connected
together through telephone lines, satellites, and so on, and that are not at the same location are called a wide area network (WAN). The Internet is an
example of a WAN, and a group of friends bringing their computers over to your house to connect together and play a game is an example of a LAN.
Between these two common types of networks is a metropolitan area network (MAN). These networks include a city, or at least part of it, and are often
operated by the government. An intranet provides many of the same functions as the Internet (email, databases, documents, and so on), but is only
available to a private group of people with passwords. A large business might have an intranet that is accessible to employees only. An extranet is a
network with limited restrictions, such as requiring a user ID and password, but it is used for selected outsiders of a company. That same company might
have a Web page that is accessible to everyone. A bus is another important network term. It is found in a LAN network in which every workstation is
connected to a main cable. This cable is the bus that shuttles data back and forth. In comparison, a star network is one in which each workstation
connects only to the main server.

Network Architecture

The way that computers interact within these networks is called the architecture.
There are two main types of computer architecture. The first is called peer-to-
peer. This means that each computer in the network has the same capabilities and
privileges as any other computer. They are all equal in terms of what they can and
cannot do. However, the second type is called client/server. You will often find this
network architecture in businesses where there is one main computer—a very
powerful one—called the server. The individual, less powerful, workstations are the
clients. A dedicated server is a computer that does nothing but control the other
networked computers, the clients. You might also have a printer server (for
controlling how the network users share the printer), a Web server (for hosting
your own Web page), or a file server (which specializes in managing all the users’
data files). In other words, no one is using any of these servers on their own to run
an application like Word or Excel®. The clients are the individual computers at the
employees’ workstations. These are also sometimes called the users. They will all
have limited access to the server and have far less network privileges than the
server (Institute for Career Research, 2008, p. 1).

Networking Terms

There are other important networking terms with which you should become
familiar. The first is a hub, which is simply a device that shares data with all the other devices connected to it. Some hubs support only a couple of
computers, while others might connect 50 or more. Workgroups are subsets of computers within a network that all share the same resources. These are
often used today in the home environment. Second, a related device is a switch. This is more intelligent than a hub because it can discern what type of
device is attached to it and only send relevant data. For example, in your home you might have a switch for your digital phone and television. The switch
would know to send voice data to the telephone only, while the latest digital movie would route to the television. Switches are important because they can
send only certain data to a particular node or workstation. This can improve network security because it prevents everyone from sharing the same
information (Parsons & Oja, 2010, p. 261). Third, a router can send data from one network to another. You might also see a router and a switch combined
together in one device.

Additional terms are associated with Internet networks. These include protocols like HTTP, discussed earlier in this chapter, which is the protocol for Web
traffic. In general, the protocols define how one computer talks to another, including computers as different as Macs® and PCs. File Transfer Protocol
(FTP) governs how files are shared on the Internet. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) controls the flow of email traffic. Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP) controls how data packets are split and then reconnected (recall our packet switching discussion from the previous section). Also, in order
for any of the individual terminal computers or personal computers to connect to the Internet, they will need a network interface card. This card plugs into

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an open socket on the motherboard (the main circuit board on every computer that contains the memory and central processing unit, and controls the
input and output devices), and is then connected to a hub or router (Habraken, 2004).

Finally, you should also be aware of network addressees. An IP address is the actual number that identifies a device (the node) connected to the Internet.
This is the way that computers can locate and talk to each other (much like a telephone number). The IP address is assigned by the Internet Service
Provider (ISP) that you select (more on this later). A static IP address is one that is unchanging, and every time you log on you have the same IP address.
ISPs also issue dynamic IP addresses, which are temporary. This number is assigned to you when you log on, but when you disconnect, another
computer is given the address. There are benefits and limitations with both. A static IP address is better for a company’s main computer server because it
enables faster file transfer. Another benefit of having your own IP address is that you do not risk having it shut down if someone who shared it with you
barraged the Internet with spam email. The dynamic IP also has advantages in the security realm because the user has a different IP address every time
they connect to the ISP.

Taken together, TCP and IP are known as the Internet protocol suite and identified as TCP/IP. A computer represents all IP addresses in four bytes, or four
numbers from 0 to 255 each, separated by dots (this equals 32 bits of information).

A Look Further: Find Your IP Address

A fun way to try this out is to see what your own IP address is if you are connected to the Internet. Open your Web browser and type
whatismyipaddress.com and you will see a number that looks like xx.xx.xx.xx (this is sometimes called a dotted quad). This Web page will
also tell you the name of your ISP and your city and country. Try it out and see what your IP address is, and find out if the Internet really
does know the city and state from which you are connecting.

Technology Today: Network Neutrality

The Internet is quickly evolving into the world’s central communications platform. Many people already log onto the Internet not only to
receive email but also to listen to music, watch their favorite television programs, download movies, and play video games.

Even as it takes on a central role in our personal lives, the Internet will remain the primary engine-driving business communication as well.
Recognition of the increasingly important role the Internet is playing in society has spurred concern about who should control access to this
vital communications pipeline.

Currently, most people gain access to the Internet by opening an account with an Internet Service Provider (ISP), which in most cases is a
large cable television or telephone company. For the most part, the ISPs have been allowed to set their own rates for granting customers
Internet access.

There were few complaints about this system when the primary means of accessing the Internet was via dial-up modems that connected
strictly through telephone lines and could only transmit limited amounts and types of information. As we moved into the broadband era, and
new methods of transmitting data—such as cable modems and DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) technology—allowed for easy transmission of
more data, including photos and video, a whole new set of issues emerged.

These issues include the following:

Will ISPs begin to set prices that might prevent some people from being able to afford access to broadband Internet?
Will ISPs—particularly cable television companies—block access to content created by companies they view as
competitors?

The U.S. Congress was so concerned about these issues that in 2009, it directed the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to
develop a National Broadband Plan to promote a concept known as Network Neutrality—or the idea that every American would have equal
access to broadband Internet capabilities. The FCC was a logical choice for developing this plan because the agency oversees the
telecommunications sector as well as the radio and television industries.

Content Discrimination or Prudent Network Management?

As the FCC set out to tackle this objective, however, it ran into some unexpected hurdles. The biggest of these hurdles surfaced when the
FCC ordered Comcast, a major cable television company and ISP, to stop blocking its customers’ access to files from BitTorrent, a popular
file sharing site.

BitTorrent allows users to download exceptionally large data files, such as feature-length movies, and then share those files with other
Internet users. Comcast argued that it was blocking BitTorrent downloads because they hogged bandwidth on its network, causing the
network to work slower for other customers. It is also important to note that BitTorrent often violates copyright laws.

In ordering Comcast to stop blocking BitTorrent downloads, the FCC said the ISP’s actions amounted to discrimination against a certain
type of content. Comcast argued that it was practicing “prudent network management” rather than content discrimination. The company
took the matter to court and ultimately prevailed when the U.S. Court of Appeals in Washington, DC, ruled that the FCC does not have the

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Wireless networks have increased access to the Internet in cafés,
shops, and public spaces around the globe. Where is the most remote
place you’ve ever logged on?

Mike Theiss/National Geographic Stock

authority to tell Comcast how to manage traffic on its network. In essence, the court was saying the FCC does not have the same authority
over ISPs that it has over telephone companies (Kang, 2010).

While it was a clear victory for Comcast, this ruling did nothing to resolve the other issues related to Network Neutrality. For instance, public
interests groups have joined companies like Google and Amazon.com in arguing that this ruling handcuffs the FCC from stepping in if
Comcast decides to prevent its customers from receiving content that doesn’t slow network traffic. There is nothing in the ruling about
setting prices for broadband access, either.

Meanwhile, the FCC has released its National Broadband Plan, a 376-page document that outlines its vision of an Internet on which all
citizens will have easy access to all legal content. It’s unlikely that the vision outlined in that document will become reality, however, unless
Congress passes new laws that spell out exactly who has the authority to regulate ISPs.

Links for More Information

Net Neutrality Sparks Lots of Talk, Very Little Action
http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/70181.html (http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/70181.html)

Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan
https://www.fcc.gov/general/national-broadband-plan (https://www.fcc.gov/general/national-broadband-plan)

Wireless Networks

The dramatic expansion of wireless networks has significantly changed when and
how we go online. When you walk into a bookstore or coffee shop, you will often
notice that the establishment has a Wi-Fi network. This is a wireless Internet
connection you can log onto with your laptop, smartphone, or tablet. You can also
create a Wi-Fi network at home by using a wireless router. Then you can take your
laptop to your backyard and surf the Internet, or log into your classroom. Make
sure you set up passwords so neighbors or strangers passing by will not be able to
see your private information or log onto your network for free.

To log into a network, each user will need a password. There are levels of
password security that are known as strong and weak passwords. A weak
password is something a hacker might easily guess, like the first name of your
child. A strong password is something that has no relation to you, and that
combines different character sets such as numbers, uppercase and lowercase
letters, and also special characters such as #$%&. “David” is an example of a
weak password. “DaVid39x” is an example of a strong password. A strong
password is impossible to guess, making it extremely difficult for an automated
hacking program to gain access to your network (Dale & Lewis, 2006, p. 490).

Bandwidth

How fast is your Internet connection speed, and how much data can you send and receive at one time? A high bandwidth means you can share larger
amounts of information more quickly. The larger the bandwidth (sometimes called the pipeline), the better. Different types of network connections have
different bandwidth capabilities. There are three main types: voiceband, medium band, and broadband (the largest). Just as we saw in regard to measuring
the speed of a CPU, there are also measurements for the speed of the dataflow. Bits per second (bps) is the most basic number (Shinder, 2001).
Remember, a single letter requires 8 bits to represent it. So, a modem that could transmit 80 bits per second has the capability to send or receive 10 letters
each second. Thankfully, modem speeds have increased …

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