WEEK 3 DISCUSION ‘Justice’ (being just) The concept of justice, in general, is complex and somewhat nebulous (and thus specified differently by the diff

WEEK 3 DISCUSION ‘Justice’ (being just)

The concept of justice, in general, is complex and somewhat nebulous (and thus specified differently by the diff

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WEEK 3 DISCUSION ‘Justice’ (being just)

The concept of justice, in general, is complex and somewhat nebulous (and thus specified differently by the different aspects of it), and, of course, deeply philosophical, considering that every society has its own ideas of what is and isn’t just in the different spheres of life where the concept must be applicable, so after finding and accepting a definition, we should ask ourselves, what is justice to us, personally, when it is related to crime and punishment in the 21st century America, and how much of our own conviction (no pun intended) regarding those issues agrees with the way our society manages them, and also, if you consider the idea of social justice an integral part of the issue (dilemma?) of crime and punishment or separate from it? For starters, please see the dictionary definition of justice below.

Please understand that such issues can lead to the conflict of opinion with other students who may see things very differently, so please refrain from name-calling, empty propaganda (use facts, instead), and assigning blame to certain groups of people or to one political party or another (there is plenty of blame to go around in every direction, in any case) and try to focus on facts and logic in support of your argument.

Here is your discussion challenge:

Before you start: Please watch the Movie Moments videos — they provide information you should know before you make your argument one way or another.
1. Try to define ‘justice’ regarding ‘crime and punishment’ in our society.  What is justice, in essence, within that framework? Punishment? Retribution? Deterrence? Correction? Protecting society from harm? Maintaining the status quo (a tradition and social order to be upheld and continued unchanged) and, if so, can it be separated from another concept, ‘social justice?’

2. Is our justice system ‘just,’ according to the definition you find relevant, and also, is it so according to its moral definition in our society? What can be the reason for ‘injustice’ (if there is any) within our justice system?

3. There are all kinds of talks about the need for prison reform — why? Is there anything wrong with it? And if so, how could the system be improved (in case it should be improved)?

Here is a dictionary definition of ‘just:’

just 1

    (jŭst)

adj.

1.  Honorable  and  fair in  one’s  dealings  and  actions:  a just ruler.  See  Synonyms at  
fair
 1.

2.  Consistent  with  what is  morally  right;  righteous:  a just cause.

3.  Properly  due or  merited:  just deserts.

4.  Law  Valid  within  the  law;  lawful:  just claims.

5.  Suitable or  proper in  nature;  fitting:  a just touch of solemnity.

6.  Based on  fact or  sound  reason;  well-founded:  a just appraisal.

adv.  (jəst, jĭst; jŭst when stressed)

1.  Precisely;  exactly:  just enough salt.

2.  Only a  moment  ago:  He just arrived.

3. By a  narrow  margin;  barely:  just missed being hit; just caught the bus before it pulled away.

4. At a  little  distance:  just down the road.

5.  Merely;  only:  just a scratch.

6.  Simply;  certainly:  It’s just beautiful!

7.  Perhaps;  possibly:  I just may go.

Idioms:

just about

Almost;  very  nearly:  This job is just about done.

just now

Only a  moment  ago.

[Middle  English  juste,  from  Old  French,  from  Latin  iūstus;  see  
yewes-
 in  
Indo-European roots
.]

just′ly  adv.

just′ness  n.

just 2

     (jŭst)

n.  & v.

Variant of  
joust
.
 American  Heritage®  Dictionary of  the  English  Language,  Fifth  Edition.  Copyright ©  2016 by  Houghton  Mifflin  Harcourt  Publishing  Company.  Published by  Houghton  Mifflin  Harcourt  Publishing  Company.  All  rights  reserved.

just

adj

1.

a.  fair or  impartial in  action or  judgment

b. ( as collective noun;  preceded by  the):  the just.

2.  conforming to  high  moral  standards;  honest

3.  consistent  with  justice:  a just action.

4.  rightly  applied or  given;  deserved:  a just reward.

5.  (Law)  legally  valid;  lawful:  a just inheritance.

6.  well-founded;  reasonable:  just criticism.

7.  correct,  accurate, or  true:  a just account.

adv

8.  used  with  forms of  have to  indicate an  action  performed in  the  very  recent  past:  I have just closed the door.

9. at  this  very  instant:  he’s just coming in to land.

10. no  more  than;  merely;  only:  just an ordinary car.

11.  exactly;  precisely:  that’s just what I mean.

12. by a  small  margin;  barely:  he just got there in time.

13.  (intensifier):  it’s just wonderful to see you.

14.  informal  indeed;  with a  vengeance:  isn’t it just.

15.  just about

a. at  the  point of  starting  (to do  something)

b.  very  nearly;  almost:  I’ve just about had enough.

16.  just a moment  just a second  just a minute an  expression  requesting  the  hearer to  wait or  pause  for a  brief  period of  time

17.  just now

a. a  very  short  time  ago

b. at  this  moment

c.  South African  informal in a  little  while

18.  just on  having  reached  exactly:  it’s just on five o’clock.

19.  just so

a. an  expression of  complete  agreement or of  unwillingness to  dissent

b.  arranged  with  precision
[C14:  from  Latin  jūstus  righteous,  from  jūs  justice]

ˈjustly  adv

ˈjustness  n

Usage:  The  use of  just  with  exactly ( it’s just exactly what they want) is  redundant  and  should be  avoided:  it’s exactly what they want

 Collins  English  Dictionary –  Complete  and  Unabridged,  12th  Edition  2014 ©  HarperCollins  Publishers  1991,  1994,  1998,  2000,  2003,  2006,  2007,  2009,  2011,  2014

just1

   (dʒʌst)

adv.

1.  within a  brief  preceding  time;  but a  moment  before:  The sun just came out.

2.  exactly or  precisely:  That’s just what I mean.

3. by a  narrow  margin;  barely:  just over six feet tall.

4.  only or  merely:  I was just a child. Don’t just sit there.

5. at  this  moment:  The movie is just ending.

6.  simply:  We’ll just have to wait and see.

7.  quite;  really;  positively.

adj.

8.  guided by  reason,  justice,  and  fairness.

9.  done or  made  according to  principle;  equitable:  a just reply.

10.  based on  right;  lawful:  a just claim.

11. in  keeping  with  truth or  fact;  true;  correct:  a just analysis.

12.  given or  awarded  rightly;  deserved:  a just punishment.

13. in  accordance  with  standards or  requirements;  proper or  right:  just proportions.

14.  (esp. in  Biblical  use)  righteous.

15.  actual,  real, or  genuine.
[1325–75;  Middle  English <  Latin  jūstus  lawful,  deserved,  just,  adj.  derivative of  jūs  law,  right] just′ly,  adv. just′ness,  n. And here are a few links that can help you started: On right and wrong: Why innocent people plead guilty? http://www.nybooks.com/articles/2014/11/20/why-innocent-people-plead-guilty/ It is not so simple: Why people keep returning to prison? http://www.nbcnews.com/id/35263313/ns/business-careers/t/unable-get-jobs-freed-inmates-return-jail/#.WUdK_-vyuCo The difficulties of parole. https://people.missouristate.edu/michaelcarlie/what_i_learned_about/pp/difficulties.htm Psychology Discussion Requirements: 1. You are required to have 3 posts in each discussion, and these three posts must be made on three separate days.  The first post is the initial response to the question that appropriately and completely addresses the topic 2. Your initial post (your response to the topic) must contain a citation.  It is your ideas supported by research. Please refer to the APA PowerPoint in the Start Here section of the classroom for information on proper formatting. There will be a deduction of 20 points for failure to cite a source within your initial post and to provide a reference at the end of your initial post. 3. Your initial post must be a minimum of 400 words and each response must be a minimum of 350 words. Please double-check your word count. Only posts that meet the word count requirements receive credit. 4. Post your word count at the end of each post. There will be a 5 point deduction for each failure to provide a word count. 5. Please address fellow students and professor by name. There will be a 5 point deduction for each failure to address by name. 6. Please use spell-check and proper grammar. Points will be deducted for each spelling and grammatical error up to 10 points for each post. REPLY TWO PEERS MINIMUN 350 COUNT WORDS The remaining two posts are responses to two different classmates 1- Dennise Williams  COLLAPSE Top of Form                                             What is “Justice”?                                         Dennise M. Williams                           Critical Thinking, Keiser University                                     Professor Zoltan Vamos                                         September 13, 2021            The definition of Justice can mean different things for each of us.  There are many meanings of the word “Just” or “Justice” in the dictionary. It means “honorable” or exactly, precisely, consistent with Justice, fair, “impartial “and consistent with Justice. These are many examples of the word Justice.  Crimes are committed every day, and the laws are made by men and are broken by men. The legal system was supposed to be made for punish people when the laws are broken, but there are so many flaws in the system.      There are so many injustices done in society today. American citizens have the right for a speedy trial of twelve of their peers. These people must use all the evidence to prove within a reasonable doubt that the person was guilty or innocent. What is “right” or “wrong”. (Horowitiz,2011). This is questioning what we believe and why we believe it. Looking back in society many different ethnic groups didn’t have “Justice”. How can you get a fair trial when science was not brought into the courtroom until 1923?       Millions of people’s lives were taken from them in some way or form because of “eyewitness statements” These statements held strong credibility with the court and until science was brought in many people went to jail or prison on false charges. (Rakoff,2012). According to the “American’s Guilty Plea Problem” out of 350 people about 10 percent of the people are guilty but most of the people were innocent, and they had to plea out because of the overrun court systems, or the social status of the person matters because of the financial costs of lawyers.       “Social Justice “plays a big role in the court system. If you didn’t have the means or privileges for within society, pleading out was the only choice they had even if they were innocent. This appeared to be the only option because if they took it to trial, they might receive a must severe charge or punishment.       When science met law, this helped hundreds of thousands of innocent people. (Fraser.2012) “Reconstructive memory “happens without our awareness. Bits and pieces of information is only used when recalling experiences and only partial of the information is stored. The definition of Justice means fair so is it fair for the killer of a mother gets parole or should he get the death penalty.       In my eyes the laws are not fair because Justice for me is not the same as justice for the next person.   Can there really be “retribution’ for a child losing their parent? Can a person really be rehabilitated and change? Socrates’ believed in “Examine of life”. This was questioning what we believe and why we believe it. I believe in rehabilitation and retribution to society and the ones we hurt. If the death penalty is enforced, it doesn’t change the pain and suffering. It won’t change the pain or bring back someone from the dead. If someone is executed, they can try to pay back what they took, life.       2 . ERICK SOTO . Try to define 'justice' regarding 'crime and punishment' in our society.  What is justice, in essence, within that framework? Punishment? Retribution? Deterrence? Correction? Protecting society from harm? Maintaining the status quo (a tradition and social order to be upheld and continued unchanged) and, if so, can it be separated from another concept, 'social justice?' When I think of justice, I think of the laws being enforced to make sure everyone follows them and if a person does wrong, they’re treated accordingly to the crime they committed. Justice doesn’t just punish those who break the law but also helps those who are innocent. Generally, when we think of justice, we think it “is a rational judgment involving fairness in which the wrongdoer receives punishment deserving of his/her crime” (Gordon, 2016). Social justice on the other hand is slightly different because it goes more into equal rights, opportunity, and treatment. The terms justice and just are similar in that they both involve fair decisions.  2. Is our justice system 'just,' according to the definition you find relevant, and also, is it so according to its moral definition in our society? What can be the reason for 'injustice' (if there is any) within our justice system? Our Justice system tries its best to be just, but I fear that it’s still not good enough since mistrials and innocents keep being sent to jail. When it comes to the moral definition in our society, I think our system is just. Lawyers in a courtroom will try to sway the opinions of the court so that their client may win even if their client is the one that did the crime. The reason for the injustice in our system could be corruption or the lack of evidence for a full, complete, and fair trial to be done.  3. There are all kinds of talks about the need for prison reform, why? Is there anything wrong with it? And if so, how could the system be improved (in case it should be improved)? “Prison reform is one remedy to the ineffectiveness of our justice system that many states and the federal government have explored. Prison reform is focused on ensuring public safety and restoration for those impacted by crime through the creation of a constructive culture within our prison system” ("Why prison reform matters in America," 2018). Prison reform tactics such as mental help support, substance abuse treatment, and faith-based programs have been effective tools with the reduction of misconduct, reduced drug use, and reduced reincarceration. Prison reforms seek to provide individuals with a constructive and dignified experience while they are incarcerated, and they’re provided access to tools to help transform their lives. This is done by ensuring that individuals are given the opportunity to use these tools in their time incarcerated in a constructive manner and allows them to maintain positive relationships with their support network, this can increase the likelihood they become productive members of their communities upon reentry to normal life after leaving prison ("Why prison reform matters in America," 2018).

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