Victim Compensation And Police Please read the following article and respond to this discussion question: minimum 300 words https://thecrimereport.org/202

Victim Compensation And Police Please read the following article and respond to this discussion question: minimum 300 words

https://thecrimereport.org/202

Click here to Order a Custom answer to this Question from our writers. It’s fast and plagiarism-free.

Victim Compensation And Police Please read the following article and respond to this discussion question: minimum 300 words

https://thecrimereport.org/2021/08/23/are-victims-of-police-shootings-entitled-to-crime-victims-compensation/ (Links to an external site.)

What are the reasons why victims of police shootings should, or should not, be compensated for their victimization by police? Be sure to include references to the supplemental article as well as relevant concepts and ideas from Chapter 3 of the textbook.

The textbook is attached below.

let me know if you have any questions in the chat.

Due 8pm today!!! (10 hours) Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203

Beccaria Kant Brockway Mabbott
On Crimes and Punishment (1764) Philosophy The American Punishment
of Law (1887) Reformatory (1910) (1939)

Bentham Bentham
Moral Calculus (1789) The Rationale
of Punishment (1830)

ORIGIN

Classical Theory

CONTEMPORARY THEORY

Rational Choice Theory (p.92)

Maudsley Tarde Freud
Pathology of Mind Penal General Introduction
(1867) Philosophy to Psychoanalysis
(1912) (1920)

Pinel Healy
Treatise on Insanity (1800) The Individual Deliquent (1915)

Marx Bonger Rusche & Kircheimer
Communist Manifesto (1848) Criminality and Punishment and Social
Economic Structure (1939)
Conditions (1916)

Glueck & Glueck
500 Criminal Careers
(1930)

Mead Sutherland
The Psychology Principles of
of Punitive Justice Criminology
(1917) (1939)
Sutherland Sutherland
Criminology (1924) The Professional
Thief (1937)

Quetelet Durkheim Park, Burgess, Merton
The Propensity The Division of & McKenzie Social Structure
of Crime (1831) Labor in Society The City (1925) and Anomi (1938)
(1893) Shaw et al. (1925)
Delinquency Areas Sellin
Thrasher Culture, Conflict
The Gang (1926) and Crime (1938)

ORIGIN

Positivist Theory

CONTEMPORARY THEORY

Biological Trait Theory (p.129)

ORIGIN

Positivist Theory

CONTEMPORARY THEORY

Psychological Trait Theory (p.136)

ORIGIN

Marxist Theory

CONTEMPORARY THEORY

Critical Criminology (p.232)

ORIGIN

Sociological Theory

CONTEMPORARY THEORY

Social Structure Theory (p.158)

ORIGIN

Sociological Theory

CONTEMPORARY THEORY

Social Process Theory (p.194)

ORIGIN

Multifactor/Integrated Theory

CONTEMPORARY THEORY

Life Course Theory (p.268)

ORIGIN

Multifactor/Integrated Theory

CONTEMPORARY THEORY

Propensity Theory (p.276)

Gall Lombroso Garofalo Kretschmer Hooton
Cranioscopy/Phrenology Criminal Man Criminology Physique and American
(1800) (1863) (1885) Character (1921) Criminal (1939)

Dugdale Ferri Goring
The Jukes Criminal The English Convict (1913)
(1877) Sociology (1884)

Timeline of Criminological Theories

1775 1800 1825 1850 1875 1900 1925 1939

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203

Andenaes Martinson Cohen & Felson Clarke
General Preventive Effects What Works (1974) Routine Activities (1979) Situational Crime Prevention (1992)
of Punishment (1966)

Packer Newman J. Q. Wilson Katz
The Limits of Criminal Defensible Thinking About Crime (1975) Seductions of Crime (1988)
Sanction (1968) Space (1973)

Montagu Jeffery E. O. Wilson Mednick & Volavka Rowe Harris
Man and Crime Sociobiology (1975) Biology and Crime (1980) The Limits of The Nurture
Aggression Prevention Family Influence Assumption (1998)
(1968) (1971) (1995)

Sheldon Dalton Ellis
Varieties of Delinquent Youth (1949) The Premenstrual Syndrome (1971) Evolutionary Sociobiology (1989)

Friedlander Eysenck Bandura Hirschi & Hindelang Henggeler Moffitt Wilson & Daly
Psychoanalytic Crime and Aggression (1973) Intelligence and Delinquency in Neuropsychology Evolutionary Psychology
Approach to Personality (1964) Delinquency (1977) Adolescence (1989) of Crime (1992) (1997)
Delinquency (1947)
Murray & Herrnstein
The Bell Curve (1994)

Vold Chambliss & Seidman Lea & Young Hagan Braithwaite Zehr & Mika
Theoretical Criminology Law, Order and Power (1971) Left Realism (1984) Structural Criminology (1989) Crime, Shame, and Fundamental Concepts of
(1958) Reintegration (1989) Restorative Justice (1998)

Dahrendorf Taylor, Walton, & Young Daly & Chesney-Lind Quinney & Pepinsky Barak & Henry
Class and Class Conflict The New Criminology Feminist Theory Criminology as An Integrative-Constitutive
in Industrial Society (1959) (1973) (1988) Peacemaking (1991) Theory of Crime (1999)

Cloward & Ohlin Kornhauser Wilson Agnew Courtwright Anderson
Delinquency and Opportunity Social Sources The Truly General Strain Theory Violent Land (1996) Code of the Street
(1960) of Delinquency (1978) Disadvantaged (1987) (1992) (1999)

Lewis Blau & Blau Messner & Rosenfeld LaFree
The Culture of Poverty (1966) The Cost of Inequality (1982) Crime and the American Losing Legitimacy
Dream (1994) (1998)

Lemert Hirschi Schur Akers Kaplan Akers
Social Causes of Labeling Deviant Deviant Behavior (1977) General Theory Social Learning and
Pathology (1951) Delinquency (1969) Behavior (1972) of Deviance (1992) Social Structure (1998)

Becker Heimer & Matsueda
Outsiders (1963) Differential Social Control (1994)

Glueck & Glueck West & Farrington Thornberry Sampson & Laub Loeber
Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency Delinquent Way of Life Interactional Crime in the Making (1993) Pathways to Delinquency
(1950) (1977) Theory (1987) (1998)

Weis Moffitt
Social Development Adolescence-Limited and Life-Course
Theory (1981) Persistent Antisocial Behavior (1995)

Hathaway & Monachesi Wolfgang, Figlio, & Sellin Wilson & Herrnstein Tittle
Analyzing and Predicting Delinquency in Birth Cohorts Crime and Human Control Balance: Toward a General
Juvenile Delinquency (1972) Nature (1985) Theory of Deviance (1995)
with the MMPI (1953)
Eysenck Gottfredson & Hirschi
Crime and Personality General Theory of Crime (1990)
(1964)

1947 1969 1975 1980 1991 1995 1997 1998

Timeline of Criminological Theories (continued)

Colvin Farrington Zimmerman, Botchkovar,
Crime and Coercion (2000) “Developmental and Life-Course Antonaccio, & Hughes “Low Self-
Criminology” (2003) Control in ‘Bad’ Neighborhoods” (2015)

Piquero, Farrington, Boutwell, Barnes, Deaton, &
Nagin, & Moffitt Beaver “On the Evolutionary Origins of
Trajectories of Offending (2010) Life-course Persistent Offending” (2013)

Conger
Long-term Consequences of Economic
Hardship on Romantic Relationships (2015)

Laub & Sampson Agnew Larson & Sweeten Bersani & Doherty
Shared Beginnings, Divergent Why Do Criminals Offend? “Breaking Up Is “When the Ties That
Lives (2003) (2005) Hard to Do” (2012) Bind Unwind” (2013)

Topalli “When Being Good Conger
Is Bad: An Expansion of “Family Functioning and Crime” (2014)
Neutralization Theory” (2005)

Maruna
Making Good: How Ex-convicts
Reform and Rebuild Their Lives (2001)

Sampson & Raudenbush LeBlanc Wilson & Taub There Goes the Neighborhood: Wilson
Disorder in Urban Neighborhoods— Random Family: Love, Drugs, Trouble, Racial, Ethnic, and Class Tensions in Four Chicago More Than Just Race (2009)
Does It Lead to Crime? (2001) and Coming of Age in the Bronx (2003) Neighborhoods and Their Meaning for America (2006)

Sullivan & Tifft Western
Restorative Justice (2001) Punishment and Inequality in America (2010)

Hagan and Wymond-Richmond Chesney-Lind & Morash
Darfur and the Crime of Genocide (2009) “Transformative Feminist Criminology” (2013)

Bushman & Anderson Dorn, Volavka &
Media Violence (2001) Johnson “Mental Disorder
and Violence” (2012)

Ellis & Hoskin
“Criminality and the 2D:4D Ratio: Testing
the Prenatal Androgen Hypothesis” (2015)

Schoenthaler Friedman Beaver Wright & Cullen Barnes & Jacobs
Intelligence, Academic Performance, “Violence and Mental Biosocial Criminology (2009) “The Future of Biosocial “Genetic Risk for Violent
and Brain Function (2000) Illness” (2006) Criminology” (2012) Behavior” (2013)

Lott Felson Steffensmeier & Ulmer Simon Petrossian & Clarke
More Guns, Less Crime (2000) Crime and Everyday Life Confessions of a Dying Thief: Understanding Governing Through Crime (2010) “The CRAVED Theft Model” (2014)
(2002) Criminal Careers and Illegal Enterprise (2005)

Levitt
Understanding Why
Crime Fell in the 1990s (2004)

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2010 2016

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203

CRIMINOLOGY
THE CORE

Larry J. Siegel
University of Massachusetts, Lowell

7

Australia ● Brazil ● Mexico ● Singapore ● United Kingdom ● United States

EDITION

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203

This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions,
some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed
content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right
to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For
valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate
formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for
materials in your areas of interest.

Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product
text may not be available in the eBook version.

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203

requests online at

Cengage

USA

Criminology: The Core,
Larry J. Siegel

Meier

Printed in the United States of America
Print Number: 01 Print Year: 2017

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203

This book is dedicated to

my children, Eric, Julie, Rachel, and Andrew;

my grandchildren, Jack, Brooke, and Kayla Jean;

my sons-in-law, Jason Macy and Patrick Stephens;

and my wife, partner, and best friend, Therese J. Libby.

L. J. S.

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203

LARRY J. SIEGEL was born in the Bronx. While liv-
ing on Jerome Avenue and attending City College of

New York in the 1960s, he was swept up in the social

and political currents of the time. He became intrigued

with the influence contemporary culture had on

individual behavior: Did people shape society, or did

society shape people? He applied his interest in social

forces and human behavior to the study of crime and

justice. Graduating from college in 1968, he was accepted into the

first class of the newly opened program in criminal justice at the

State University of New York at Albany, where he earned both

his MA and PhD degrees. Dr. Siegel began his teaching career at

Northeastern University, where he was a faculty member for nine

years. He also held teaching positions at the University of Nebraska–

Omaha and Saint Anselm College in New Hampshire before being

appointed a full professor in the School of Criminology and Jus-

tice Studies at the University of Massachusetts, Lowell. Dr. Siegel

retired from full-time classroom teaching in 2015 and now teaches

exclusively online. He has written extensively in the area of crime

and justice, including books on juvenile law, delinquency, criminol-

ogy, criminal justice, corrections, and criminal procedure. He is a

court-certified expert on police conduct and has testified in numer-

ous legal cases. The father of four and grandfather of three, Larry

Siegel and his wife, Terry, now reside in Naples, Florida, with their

two dogs, Watson and Cody.

Therese J. Libby and Larry J. Siegel

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203

PART 1 Concepts of Crime, Law, and Criminology

Chapter 1 Crime and Criminology 2

Chapter 2 The Nature and Extent of Crime 30

Chapter 3 Victims and Victimization 64

PART 2 Theories of Crime Causation

Chapter 4 Rational Choice Theory 98

Chapter 5 Trait Theory 132

Chapter 6 Social Structure Theory 170

Chapter 7 Social Process Theory 210

Chapter 8 Social Conflict, Critical Criminology, and Restorative
Justice 248

Chapter 9 Developmental Theories: Life Course, Propensity,
and Trajectory 284

PART 3 Crime Typologies

Chapter 10 Violent Crime 318

Chapter 11 Political Crime and Terrorism 366

Chapter 12 Economic Crimes: Blue-Collar, White-Collar,
and Green-Collar 404

Chapter 13 Public Order Crimes 444

Chapter 14 Crimes of the New Millennium: Cybercrime and Transnational
Organized Crime 488

Brief Contents

v

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203

Preface xv

PART 1

Concepts of Crime, Law,
and Criminology

CHAPTER 1

Crime and Criminology 2

What Criminologists Do: The Elements
of Criminology 4
Criminal Statistics/Crime Measurement 4

Sociology of Law/Law and Society/Sociolegal Studies 5

Developing Theories of Crime Causation 6

Explaining Criminal Behavior 7

Penology: Punishment, Sanctions, and Corrections 7

Victimology 8

A Brief History of Criminology 8
Classical Criminology 9

Positivist Criminology 9

Sociological Criminology 10

Conflict Criminology 11

Developmental Criminology 12

Contemporary Criminology 12

Deviant or Criminal? How Criminologists
Define Crime 13
Becoming Deviant 14

The Concept of Crime 15

Jo
e

Ra
ed

le
/G

et
ty

Im
ag

es
N

ew
s/

G
et

ty
Im

ag
es

Profiles in Crime
A SHOOTING IN FERGUSON 16

A Definition of Crime 17

Criminology and the Criminal Law 17
Common Law 18

Contemporary Criminal Law 18

The Evolution of Criminal Law 19

Criminology and Criminal Justice 19
The Criminal Justice System 20

The Process of Justice 21

Policies and Issues in Criminology
HATE CRIME IN GEORGIA 23

Ethical Issues in Criminology 24

CHAPTER 2

The Nature and Extent
of Crime 30

Primary Sources of Crime Data 32
Official Records: The Uniform Crime Report 32

NIBRS: The Future of the Uniform Crime Report 35

Survey Research 35

The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) 35

Self-Report Surveys 36

Evaluating Crime Data 38

Crime Trends 39
Contemporary Trends 40

Trends in Victimization 41

Ch
ris

tia
n

Po
ve

da
/A

ge
nc

e
VU

/R
ed

ux

Contents

vii

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203

viii CONTENTS

Policies and Issues in Criminology
INTERNATIONAL CRIME TRENDS 42

Policies and Issues in Criminology
EXPLAINING TRENDS IN CRIME RATES 44

What the Future Holds 46

Policies and Issues in Criminology
ARE IMMIGRANTS CRIME PRONE? 47

Crime Patterns 48
Place, Time, Season, Climate 48

Co-Offending and Crime 49

Gender and Crime 49

Race and Crime 51

Use of Firearms 52

Social Class and Crime 53

Unemployment and Crime 54

Age and Crime 54

Chronic Offenders/Criminal Careers 55
What Causes Chronicity? 56

Implications of the Chronic Offender Concept 56

CHAPTER 3

Victims and Victimization 64

The Victim’s Role 66

The Costs of Victimization 66
Societal-Level Costs 66

Individual-Level Costs 67

Legal Costs of Victimization 69

Policies and Issues in Criminology
THE IMPACT OF WRONGFUL CONVICTIONS ON
CRIME VICTIMS 70

The Nature of Victimization 72
The Social Ecology of Victimization 72

The Victim’s Household 73

Victim Characteristics 73

Policies and Issues in Criminology
ELDER VICTIMS 74

A
P

Im
ag

es
/J

im
C

ol
e

Victims and Their Criminals 78

Theories of Victimization 78
Victim Precipitation Theory 78

Lifestyle Theories 79

Deviant Place Theory 81

Routine Activities Theory 82

Caring for the Victim 84
Victim Service Programs 85

Victims’ Rights 89

Victim Advocates 89

Self-Protection 89

PART 2
Theories of Crime Causation

CHAPTER 4

Rational Choice Theory 98

Development of Rational Choice
Theory 100

Concepts of Rational Choice 101
Evaluating the Risks of Crime 101

Offense-Specific/Offender-Specific 102

Structuring Criminality 103

Structuring Crime 104

Is Crime Truly Rational? 106
Is Drug Use Rational? 106

Profiles in Crime
PLANNING TO STEAL 107

Is Violence Rational? 108

Is Hate Crime Rational? 108

Is Sex Crime Rational? 109

Analyzing Rational Choice Theory 109

Situational Crime Prevention 110
Crime Prevention Strategies 111

Evaluating Situational Crime Prevention 113

Th
om

as
B

ar
w

ic
k/

D
ig

ita
lV

is
io

n/
G

et
ty

Im
ag

es

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203

ixCONTENTS

General Deterrence 114
Perception and Deterrence 114

Marginal and Restrictive Deterrence 114

Punishment and Deterrence 115

Policies and Issues in Criminology
DOES THE DEATH PENALTY DISCOURAGE
MURDER? 116

Evaluating General Deterrence 118

Specific Deterrence 119
Toughen Punishment? 119

Incapacitation 120

Policies and Issues in Criminology
RACIAL DISPARITY IN STATE PRISONS 122

Criminal Justice and Rational
Choice Theory 123

Police and Rational Choice Theory 123

Courts, Sentencing, and Rational Choice Theory 123

Corrections and Rational Choice Theory 124

CHAPTER 5

Trait Theory 132

Development of Trait Theory 134

Contemporary Trait Theory 135
Individual Vulnerability vs. Differential

Susceptibility 136

Biological Trait Theories 136
Biochemical Conditions and Crime 137

Neurophysiological Conditions and Crime 139

Genetics and Crime 142

Evolutionary Views of Crime 143

Psychological Trait View 144
The Psychodynamic Perspective 145

The Behavioral Perspective: Social Learning Theory 145

Policies and Issues in Criminology
VIOLENT MEDIA/VIOLENT BEHAVIOR? 146

Cognitive Theory 149

A
P

Im
ag

es
/M

ic
ha

el
S

ul
liv

an
/

N
ew

s-
Re

vi
ew

Personality and Crime 150

Policies and Issues in Criminology
CRIMINAL SUSCEPTIBILITY 151

Psychopathic/Antisocial Personality 151

Profiles in Crime
THE ICEMAN: A TRUE SOCIOPATH 153

Intelligence and Criminality 154

Mental Disorders and Crime 155
Crime and Mental Illness 155

Profiles in Crime
ADAM LANZA AND THE NEWTOWN MASSACRE 157

Evaluation of Trait Theory 157

Social Policy and Trait Theory 158

Policy and Issues in Criminology
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY 159

CHAPTER 6

Social Structure Theory 170

Economic Structure and American Society 172
Living in Poverty 172

Child Poverty 173

Minority Group Poverty 173

Problems of the Lower Class 174

Social Structure and Crime 175

Policies and Issues in Criminology
LABOR’S LOVE LOST 176

Social Structure Theories 177

Social Disorganization Theory 177
The Work of Shaw and McKay 178

The Social Ecology School 180

Collective Efficacy 183

Strain Theories 186
Theory of Anomie 186

Institutional Anomie Theory 187

Relative Deprivation Theory 188

General Strain Theory (GST) 189

A
P

Im
ag

es
/S

te
ve

n
Se

nn
e

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203

Cultural Deviance Theory 192
Focal Concerns 192

Policies and Issues in Criminology
THE CODE OF THE STREETS 194

Theory of Delinquent Subculture 195

Theory of Differential Opportunity 197

Social Structure Theory and Public Policy 198
Broken Windows 199

CHAPTER 7

Social Process Theory 210

Institutions of Socialization 213
Family Relations 213

Educational Experience 215

Peer Relations 216

Religion and Belief 217

Social Learning Theories 218
Differential Association Theory 218

Profiles in Crime
THE AFFLUENZA CASE 221

Differential Reinforcement Theory 222

Neutralization Theory 222

Policies and Issues in Criminology
WHITE-COLLAR NEUTRALIZATION 225

Evaluating Learning Theories 226

Social Control Theory 226
Hirschi’s Social Control Theory 226

Testing Social Control Theory: Supportive Research 228

Critiquing Social Control Theory 229

Social Reaction (Labeling) Theory 230
Consequences of Labeling 231

Primary and Secondary Deviance 233

Criminal Careers 233

Differential Enforcement 234

G
ab

rie
lle

L
ur

ie
/A

FP
/G

et
ty

Im
ag

es

Long-Term Effects of Labeling 234

Is Labeling Theory Valid? 235

Social Process Theory and Public Policy 236

CHAPTER 8

Social Conflict, Critical
Criminology, and Restorative
Justice 248

Origins of Critical Criminology 250
Critical Criminology in the United States 252

Contemporary Critical Criminology 253

How Critical Criminologists
Define Crime 253

How Critical Criminologists View the Cause
of Crime 254
Failing Social Institutions 255

Globalization 255

State-Organized Crime 257

Policies and Issues in Criminology
ARE WRONGFUL CONVICTIONS A STATE
CRIME? 260

Instrumental vs. Structural Theory 261
Instrumental Theory 261

Profiles in Crime
RUSSIAN STATE-ORGANIZED CRIME 262

Structural Theory 263

Research on Critical Criminology 263
Race and Justice 263

Alternative Views of Critical Theory 264
Left Realism 264

Policies and Issues in Criminology
LEFT REALISM AND TERROR 265

Critical Feminist Theory: Gendered Criminology 266

Power–Control Theory 269

Peacemaking Criminology 270

A
ni

k
Ra

hm
an

/R
ed

ux

x CONTENTS

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203

Critical Theory and Public Policy: Restorative
Justice 271
The Concept of Restorative Justice 271

Reintegrative Shaming 272

The Process of Restoration 273

The Challenge of Restorative Justice 276

CHAPTER 9

Developmental Theories:
Life Course, Propensity,
and Trajectory 284

Foundations of Developmental Theory 286
Three Views of Criminal Career Development 287

Population Heterogeneity vs. State Dependence 288

Life Course Theory 289
Age of Onset 290

Problem Behavior Syndrome 291

Continuity of Crime 291

Age-Graded Theory 292

Policies and Issues in Criminology
HUMAN AGENCY, PERSONAL ASSESSMENT, CRIME,
AND DESISTANCE 296

Social Schematic Theory (SST) 297

Policies and Issues in Criminology
SHARED BEGINNINGS, DIVERGENT LIVES 298

Latent Trait/Propensity Theory 300
Crime and Human Nature 300

General Theory of Crime (GTC) 301

Trajectory Theory 304
Age and Offending Trajectories 304

Personality and Offending Trajectories 305

Chronic Offenders and Non-offenders 305

Pathways to Crime 306

Adolescent-Limited and Life Course Persistent

Offenders 306

Public Policy Implications of Developmental
Theory 308

H
ar

tf
or

d
Co

ur
an

t/
Tr

ib
un

e
N

ew
s

Se
rv

ic
e/

G
et

ty
Im

ag
es

; A
P

Im
ag

es
/

Co
nn

ec
tic

ut
D

ep
ar

tm
en

t o
f C

or
re

ct
io

n

PART 3
Crime Typologies

CHAPTER 10

Looking for this or a Similar Assignment? Click below to Place your Order