United States History HAPPY/HIPPY – Analysis of Documents Historical Context Intended Audience Purpose Point of View (POV) whY – Signifi

United States History HAPPY/HIPPY – Analysis of Documents

Historical Context

Intended Audience

Purpose

Point of View (POV)

whY – Signifi

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United States History HAPPY/HIPPY – Analysis of Documents

Historical Context

Intended Audience

Purpose

Point of View (POV)

whY – Significance

Historical context connects the document to specific historical events, to specific circumstances of time and place, and/or to broader regional, national, or global processes.

It places the document within broader trends contemporary to the source. It might also connect the document across time to earlier and later eras, or across space to events happening in different places.
To place a document within a historical context:
1. Identify the particular historical trend or process in which the document fits

2. Explain how the document participates in that historical trend or process.

Observing the ‘intended audience’ of a source involves identifying a person or group the author expects to inform or influence in creating the source. It is very important in constructing your argument about the intended audience that you go beyond what is noted in the source line of the document.
Credit for extended analysis of a document will not be granted for mere repetition of an audience identified in the source line.
If you know the ‘intended audience’ of the author write sentences that describe the audience.

The author’s Purpose can be thought of as the goal sought by the author. It involves identifying the author’s endgame, what they hope to accomplish, and why they are writing the document.
Common purposes include:
– to inform
– to entertain
– to persuade
– to influence
– to teach
– to record
– requirements of the author’s job or profession
– to describe
– promotion of self
– to regulate (as in-laws or rules).

If you pick up on a ‘purpose’ of the author in producing the document write sentences that describe the purpose conveyed.

Establish a better understanding of the identity of the author; you can do this by asking yourself questions about the author and the source.

– What is the author’s profession?

– What is the author’s gender or social class?

– What religion does the author follow?

– Does the author have an identifiable ethnicity, nationality, or other allegiance to a particular group?

Once you’ve asked these questions, go further and explain how one of these factors may have influenced the content of the source.
Put simply, to do POV identify an important aspect of
WHO
the author is, and explain
HOW
the author’s personhood might have impacted what they wrote.

– Why is this source important?

– What inferences can you draw from this document?

– Ask yourself, “So what?” in relation to the question asked.

– Why is this primary source important in history?

The “significance” prompt asks you to consider and decide how a primary source is relevant to the particular question asked.

A source can be relevant for both the specific information it provides as well as the inferences it encourages the reader to draw.

The significance of a particular primary source can change depending on the question asked.

The significance prompt serves to remind you not to forget why you examined the primary source in the first place.

Sentence frames for HAPPY analysis

Historical Context

Intended Audience

Purpose

Point of View (POV)

whY – Significance

During this time…

At the time this document was written…

The period [year-year] saw an increase/change/ lessening of…

[Author wrote/ spoke/ did their thing] during a time of…

[Author’s] efforts to [purpose verb]…can be understood in the context of the [….] at the time.

[Author’s speech/letter, etc] was aimed at…

The author was reaching out to…

[Author] targeted…

Addressing (the individual/ group), who [would have agreed/ disagreed/ something about the group’s POV]

This was meant for…

[Author’s] intention was to [verb]…

[Author], trying to [verb] [audience] to …….

[Author], hoping to [verb],…

In [letter/speech/ cartoon], [author] sought to ……..

Purpose Verbs:
persuade, convince, discredit, expose, highlight, celebrate, criticize, justify, inform, explain, assuage, reassure, incite…etc.

[Author], as a [status/occupation] him/herself, …..

From the author’s perspective as a ___…

The [author’s group/org] believed that…

Because of [author’s] support/opposition to…,

As a member of ____, [Author] saw this as…

This is important because ____.

The document supports/ refutes ___, which shows that ___.

As a result, it can be concluded/inferred that _____.

Credit: modified from various APUSHers

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