Unit III Article Critique Please make sure that it is your own work and not copy and paste off of someone lese work or article. Please watch out for spelli

Unit III Article Critique Please make sure that it is your own work and not copy and paste off of someone lese work or article. Please watch out for spelli

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Unit III Article Critique Please make sure that it is your own work and not copy and paste off of someone lese work or article. Please watch out for spelling and grammar errors. please use the APA 7th edition format, Please read the study guide. This is a DBA course and needs to be done on this level.

Book Reference: Gray, D. E. (2020). Doing research in the business world (2nd ed.). SAGE. https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781529700527

In this unit, you were introduced to different research methodologies and design. For this assignment, you will apply what you have learned and assess research methodologies in business literature. To begin this assignment, read the article below, which is also in the required unit resources for this unit.Men, C., Fong, P. S. W., Huo, W., Zhong, J., Jia, R., & Luo, J. (2020, October). Ethical leadership and knowledge hiding: A moderated mediation model of psychological safety and mastery climate. Journal of Business Ethics, 166(3), 461–472. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-018-4027-7Then, write a critique of the article, paying special attention to pages 461–465 in the article. In your critique, be sure to evaluate the premise and supporting arguments, and evaluate how the research methodology of the study and the hypotheses are related. Your critique must be at least two pages in length, and you must use at least the article as a reference. Adhere to APA Style when constructing this assignment, including in-text citations and references for all sources that are used. Please note that no abstract is needed.

Resources

The following resource(s) may help you with this assignment.

Citation Guide
Submit Writing Center Request RCH 7301, Critical Thinking for Doctoral Learners 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit III

Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

4. Assess theoretical research methodologies in contemporary business scholarship.
4.1 Evaluate the alignment of research methodology with a problem to be studied.
4.2 Deduce the best research methodology to use in studying a problem.

7. Implement a critical thinking process for business research methodology.

7.1 Establish the relationship between research methodology and a study’s hypotheses.

Course/Unit
Learning Outcomes

Learning Activity

4.1

Unit Lesson
Chapter 8, pp. 208–220
Article: ”Ethical Leadership and Knowledge Hiding: A Moderated Mediation

Model of Psychological Safety and Mastery Climate”
Unit III Article Critique

4.2

Unit Lesson
Chapter 8, pp. 208–220
Article: ”Ethical Leadership and Knowledge Hiding: A Moderated Mediation

Model of Psychological Safety and Mastery Climate”
Unit III Article Critique

7.1

Unit Lesson
Chapter 8, pp. 208–220
Article: ”Ethical Leadership and Knowledge Hiding: A Moderated Mediation

Model of Psychological Safety and Mastery Climate”
Unit III Article Critique

Required Unit Resources

Chapter 8: Mixed Methods Research Design, pp. 208–220

In order to access the resource below, utilize the CSU Online Library to begin your research.

Men, C., Fong, P. S. W., Huo, W., Zhong, J., Jia, R., & Luo, J. (2020, October). Ethical leadership and

knowledge hiding: A moderated mediation model of psychological safety and mastery climate.
Journal of Business Ethics, 166(3), 461–472. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-018-4027-7

Unit Lesson

Research Methodology and Design

First, to begin a study, the researcher must have a good general knowledge of research methods. One of the
problem areas that many early researchers fall into is developing an all-too-quick familiarity with one or two
methodological approaches and not looking at the range of methods and analytical approaches that are
available. For instance, if a researcher is not comfortable with math, they may prefer to avoid conducting
quantitative research. In contrast, if a researcher prefers to review data, they may be uninterested in
interviewing people. With a limited mindset, a researcher is limiting the full range of possibilities available to
them, which can negatively impact the study.

UNIT III STUDY GUIDE
Research Methodology and Design

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Without delving in and learning about the many aspects of research methodology, it creates a situation where
the doctoral student has to learn by doing; if they make mistakes while doing the project, then the timeline for
the study’s completion is impacted. Rather than learning by doing, having a body of knowledge to refer to is
important and can assist the researcher to select an approach that is appropriate for the research problem.
Problems with study design can be avoided by developing a general knowledge of research methods early in
the process. The goal is to make informed choices about methodology from the beginning.

To begin learning about research methodology, doctoral students can go to the SAGE Research Methods
database in the CSU Online Library. There, we find resources such as the SAGE Handbook of Qualitative
Research and the SAGE Handbook of Quantitative Research. Both of these publications show the rich,
diverse approaches to research that are possible through qualitative and quantitative methodologies.

A second point is to read many examples of good, published research. Good, published research acts as an
exemplar, and students can learn a great deal by reading and absorbing studies in their field and areas of
interest. Look for surveys, participant observations, and other methodologies and methods to learn how good
research is designed, analyzed, and applied.

Difference Between Research Methodologies and Methods

Methodology is the rationale behind your research and the lens through which the researcher analyzes
results. Some examples of methodology are listed below.

• Phenomenology describes the “lived experience” of a phenomenon.
• Ethnography looks at culture and the social norms and behaviors of a group.
• Action research is when the researcher systematically looks at a problem and tries various solutions

to see how effective they are.

Methods are the tools that researchers use to carry out research. Examples are listed below:

• a survey or questionnaire,
• a focus group,
• a case study,
• structured interviews, and
• a controlled experiment.

In summary, the methodology is how the researcher will answer the research question, and the method is
what the researcher does to collect the data.

Meanings of Quantitative and Qualitative

There are two major research paradigms (Creswell et al., 2003). Qualitative research questions usually aim to
explore a question with no set hypothesis beforehand. A qualitative approach is more focused on gaining in-
depth insight than it is about making an empirical generalization that can be applied to a population. The
design of qualitative studies can be categorized in two ways, which are listed below.

• Naturalistic looks at real-world situations as they unfold naturally, and there is a lack of pre-set
limitations on findings.

• Emergent is when the researcher is open to adjusting their research question and methods to pursue
new lines of inquiry as they emerge.

The qualitative design requires that a researcher be comfortable conducting interviews or speaking in front of
groups. Examples of qualitative methods include face-to-face interviews that are structured, semi-structured,
or unstructured; focus group discussions that are 1–2 hours in length; case studies; observations; and textual
analyses.

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The quantitative design requires that a researcher be able to take words and turn them into numbers, such as
numbers on a Likert scale or numerical responses to survey questions. A typical quantitative method of data
gathering might include a survey involving analysis of primary data collected using a structured questionnaire,
statistical analysis of data sets, comparison of data sets, or analysis of population trends.

Quantitative research questions usually contain a hypothesis and/or try to predict something. Quantitative
studies are characterized by tools that are carefully designed before data is collected, larger sample sizes,
and the ability to be replicated. Quantitative approaches are listed below.

• Descriptive: How much? How often?
• Comparative: What is the difference between?
• Relationship-based: What is the relationship between?

No research design—qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods—is preferable to another, and there is no
one right way to design a research project. When you, with the input of your dissertation chair, decide on a
design, your choice will align with the internally consistent choices that are within that research tradition
(O’Gorman & MacIntosh, 2015).

The methods map (Figure 1) is a visualization of the steps that researchers take as they make decisions
about the research paradigm, data gathering, and data analysis approaches. Ontologically, in terms of the
concepts or variables that the researcher wants to study, does an objective or subjective paradigm fit with the
data-gathering strategies that the researcher envisions using? Working through the aligned choices on the
methods map can help researchers to position themselves with the interlocking choices that a paradigm
suggests, because knowing what those choices entail helps to firm up the concept for the research study.

Choosing a Methodology

Following through with the method map’s steps can help you to discover who you are as a researcher, the
best way to gather data on your topic, and what shape your research will take. Knowing your options is
important because not only will you explain your methodology, techniques of data gathering, and data
analysis approach, but you will also have to explain why you did not select another methodology and its
attendant steps.

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Figure 1: Methods map
(Adapted from O’Gorman & MacIntosh, 2015)

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Which Approach Is Right for This Study?

Before the researcher and dissertation chair decide which paradigm is the best fit for the research question,
the researcher must consider the following components:

• the nature of the research question,
• what the researcher seeks to know,
• how the researcher will collect the data, and
• who they are as a researcher.

Reviewing the continuums suggested in Figure 2 can help the researcher to discover the best approach.

More quantitative in nature More qualitative in nature
Positivist paradigm Interpretivist paradigm

Focus on facts

Focus on meaning(s)

Look for causality and
fundamental laws

Try to understand what is
happening

Reduce phenomena to simplest
elements

Look at the totality of each
situation

Formulate hypotheses and test
them

Develop ideas through
induction from the data

Operationalize concepts so that
they can be measured

Use multiple methods to
establish different views of

phenomena
Take large samples

Small samples investigated in
depth over time

Figure 2: Continuum of research paradigms

Choosing a research methodology begins with a consideration of the research question. The researcher
should analyze the question and determine what information they will need to address it. Good questions to
consider are listed below.

• What kinds of data would help me to answer this question?
• How would I want to present my results?

If the answers to these questions lead to a more exploratory approach—working to understand a
phenomenon or the behaviors and experiences of a group of people—a qualitative paradigm would give the
best results. On the other hand, if the researcher wants to look for correlations, comparisons, relationships, or
trends, a quantitative paradigm would work better.

Conclusion

The goal of all research is to make sense of the data and relate it back to the research question, answering
how it addresses a gap in the literature. Check that the analysis has not already been done and reported. Be
flexible in data-gathering strategies and in how data is interpreted and comprehended. In all likelihood, the
researcher will get more data than the study requires, so it is important to work with the dissertation chair to
make sense of it and write a discussion that interprets it as a part of a dialogue in the topic area.

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References

Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Gutmann, M. L., & Hanson, W. E. (2003). Advanced mixed methods

research designs. In A. Tashakkori, & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social and
behavioral research (pp. 209–240). SAGE.

O’Gorman, K. D., & MacIntosh, R. (Eds.). (2015). Research methods for business and management (2nd

ed.). Goodfellow. http://dx.doi.org/10.23912/978-1-910158-51-7-2772

Suggested Unit Resources

In order to access the resource below, utilize the CSU Online Library to begin your research.

In the following eBook, the author helps you to make a connection between the concepts presented in this
course and the act of researching and writing your own dissertation. Read Chapter 9 (“Project: Methodology”),
which is linked below.

Levin, P. (2011). Project: Methodology. In Excellent dissertations! McGraw-Hill Education. https://dx-doi-

org.libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/10.4135/9781849209540.n10

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit III
Learning Activity
Required Unit Resources
Unit Lesson
Research Methodology and Design
Difference Between Research Methodologies and Methods
Meanings of Quantitative and Qualitative
Choosing a Methodology
Which Approach Is Right for This Study?

Conclusion
References

Suggested Unit Resources

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