Please Write A Separate Annotated Bibliography For Each Of These Primary Research Papers( Attached Below). guidelines (in word file) and 3 primary articles

Please Write A Separate Annotated Bibliography For Each Of These Primary Research Papers( Attached Below). guidelines (in word file) and 3 primary articles

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Please Write A Separate Annotated Bibliography For Each Of These Primary Research Papers( Attached Below). guidelines (in word file) and 3 primary articles (in pdf file) are attached. GUIDELINES FOR ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated bibliography is a list of references (journal articles in your case) along with a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph for each. Annotations should include both descriptive and critical statements on the subject article, whereas an abstract is just a summary description of article. Annotations address the main points of the article and critiques, entailing rationale of study purpose and hypotheses, validity of investigation methods, or study, appropriateness of results and conclusion, and overall clarity of expression. Each annotation of the articles in your bibliography should include the followings with 300-500 words, excluding the word counts for the title and author information.

· Title & author information – Author(s) and their affiliation(s) of the article, year of publication, title of the article, Title, volume number and page number (or DOI) of the journal in which the article is published
· Introduction & hypothesis – brief background information on the topic investigated in the research paper, clear and concise purpose of the study, and hypotheses tested
· Methods – concise statement of the experimental design (description of subjects/tissues/cells/animal models, etc., utilized, inclusion and exclusion criteria, identity of controls, types of measurements/lab analyses, and concise statement of the methods of statistical analysis and levels of significance to be accepted
· Results & conclusions – report and analysis of the outcome variables (the data resulting from the study), statement of the relative significance of the study as it applies to the hypothesis tested and the study data presented
· Critique – Your personal comments on how this paper could have been made better (methods of data collection, statistical analysis, numbers of observations, their statement of conclusions and implications, etc.?

Gut Microbiota and Bipolar Disorder

Emiko Aizawa et al. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus counts in the gut microbiota of patients with bipolar disorder healthy controls. Frontiers in psychiatry. 2019.

Annotated Bibliography

Bipolar disorder is neuropsychological disorder in which patients have mood swings due to altered neurotransmitter action, however concise mechanism remains elusive. Recent studies on various animal models have shown a positive bi-directional relationship between gut microbiota and neuro psychological disorders and are indicated to be involved directly or indirectly that is by effecting neural action, immune system and neurotransmitter levels. some gut microbes are beneficial while other microbes are harmful especially if their count alter and compete with protective ones. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus are those substantiated for healthy gut-brain axis. To see their effect/involvement or possible relation in bipolar disorders, a study was conducted.

The study was conducted on 39 bipolar disorder patients and 58 healthy controls, recruited from outpatient clinic at National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP). Both groups are random Japanese participants. Out of 39 patients, 13 patients were affected with bipolar disorder I and 26 with bipolar II. All enrolled patients and healthy controls were interview, screened and diagnosed by research psychiatrist using Japanese version of Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Healthy candidates were excluded with any history of psychiatric disorder or contact with psychiatric services. All participants were biological unrelated and were screened to exclude candidate with history other CNS disease, gastrointestinal disease, recent use of antibiotics, head injury etc. There was no significant difference between age, BMI, education between both groups; moreover, patients’ onset of disorder had no significant difference as well. Patients’ antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs were converted to chlorpromazine and imipramine equivalents, respectively. Out of 39 patients, 9 patients were on probiotic medication. For the analysis of bacterial count, approx. 1 gram of fecal samples were collected in tube containing RNA stabilization solution from both groups. The samples were then processed for bacterial RNA extraction. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was targeted on 16S or 23S rRNA, by using primers of Bifidobacterium and lactobacillus were used to determine the count of bacteria. The quantification cycle values in the linear range were applied to analytical curve to obtain the corresponding bacterial count. Models’ cortisol level was also determined from their fasting venous blood samples collected in morning. In statistical analysis, data was presented as mean ±SD (standard deviation) unless otherwise specified. ANCOVA was used to compare bacterial counts between two groups and controlling of age and sex within the group. In the results obtained, showed no significant difference in Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus count was found between bipolar disorder patient and healthy control. However, there was a negative correlation between Bifidobacterium count and cortisol levels in the bipolar patients with sleeping disorder.
Therefore, the findings suggest that Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus may not play any role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, unlike their evident reduction in counts in major depressive disorders from previous studies. However, the negative relation between Bifidobacterium and cortisol level indicates its role in sleep and stress response in the patients.
CRITIQUES:

GUIDELINES FOR ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated bibliography is a list of

references (journal articles in your case) along with a brief

descriptive and evaluative paragraph for each. Annotations should include both descriptive and

critical statements on the subject article, whereas an abstract is just a summary description of

a

rticle. Annotations address the main points of the article and critiques, entailing rationale of study

purpose and hypotheses, validity of investigation methods, or study, appropriateness of results and

conclusion, and overall clarity of expression. Each

annotation of the articles in your bibliography

should include the followings with 300

500 words, excluding the word counts for the title and

author information.

·

Title & author information

Author(s) and their affiliation(s) of the artic

le, year of

publication, title of the article, Title, volume number and page number (or DOI) of the

journal in which the article is published

·

Introduction

& hypothesis

brief background information on the topic investigated

in the research paper

,

clear an

d concise purpose of the study

, and hypotheses tested

·

Methods

concise statement of the experimental design (description of

subjects/tissu

es/cells/animal models, etc.,

utilized, inclusion and exclusion criteria,

identity of controls, types of measurements

/lab analyses

, and c

oncise statement of the

methods of statistical analysis and levels of significance to be accepted

·

Results

& conclusions

report and analysis of the outcome variables (the data

resulting from the study)

,

statement of the relative signif

icance of the study as it applies

to the hypothesis test

ed and the study data presented

·

Critique

Your personal comments on how this paper could have been made better

(methods of data collection, statistical analysis, numbers of observations, their

statem

ent of conclusions and implications, etc

.

?

GUIDELINES FOR ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annotated Bibliography
Annotated bibliography is a list of references (journal articles in your case) along with a brief
descriptive and evaluative paragraph for each. Annotations should include both descriptive and
critical statements on the subject article, whereas an abstract is just a summary description of
article. Annotations address the main points of the article and critiques, entailing rationale of study
purpose and hypotheses, validity of investigation methods, or study, appropriateness of results and
conclusion, and overall clarity of expression. Each annotation of the articles in your bibliography
should include the followings with 300-500 words, excluding the word counts for the title and
author information.

· Title & author information – Author(s) and their affiliation(s) of the article, year of
publication, title of the article, Title, volume number and page number (or DOI) of the
journal in which the article is published
· Introduction & hypothesis – brief background information on the topic investigated
in the research paper, clear and concise purpose of the study, and hypotheses tested
· Methods – concise statement of the experimental design (description of
subjects/tissues/cells/animal models, etc., utilized, inclusion and exclusion criteria,
identity of controls, types of measurements/lab analyses, and concise statement of the
methods of statistical analysis and levels of significance to be accepted
· Results & conclusions – report and analysis of the outcome variables (the data
resulting from the study), statement of the relative significance of the study as it applies
to the hypothesis tested and the study data presented
· Critique – Your personal comments on how this paper could have been made better
(methods of data collection, statistical analysis, numbers of observations, their
statement of conclusions and implications, etc.?

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