English Akinro 2 Week 5 Discussion: Kant’s Ethics and Our Duty Required Resources Read/review the following resources for this activity: · Textbook: Chap

English Akinro 2
Week 5 Discussion: Kant’s Ethics and Our Duty

Required Resources
Read/review the following resources for this activity:
· Textbook: Chap

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English Akinro 2
Week 5 Discussion: Kant’s Ethics and Our Duty

Required Resources
Read/review the following resources for this activity:
· Textbook: Chapters 9, 10
· Lesson
· Minimum of 1 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook)

Introduction
Kant’s famous First Formulation of the Categorical Imperative reads, “Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.” Kant taught morality as a matter of following maxims of living that reflect absolute laws. “Universal” is a term that allows for no exceptions, and what is universal applies always and everywhere. Don’t forget about the second formulation of the categorical imperative which states, “Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of another, always at the same time as an end and never simply as a means.” It is just as important.

Initial Post Instructions
For the initial post, address one of the following sets of questions:
1. What are the personal and/or communal ethical factors that may be involved in determining the moral position of either side given a contemporary debate, such as those concerning animal rights, stem cell research, abortion, the death penalty, and so forth?
2. Elaborate in detail the ethical positions arrived at by using the Kantian categorical imperative relative to the long standing debate surrounding the death penalty or abortion. Argue the ethics from the point of view of the prisoner or from the fetus
3. Evaluate the ethical positions in part two. You will want to detail whether they are convincing, logical, correct, consistent, etc.

Follow-Up Post Instructions
Respond to at least one peer. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.

Writing Requirements

· Minimum of 2 posts (1 initial & 1 follow-up)
· Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside scholarly source)
· APA format for in-text citations and list of references

Grading
This activity will be graded using the Discussion Grading Rubric. Please review the following link:
· Link (webpage): 
Discussion Guidelines

Week 5 Assignment: Course Project Milestone: Annotated Bibliography

Required Resources
Read/review the following resources for this activity:
· Textbook: Chapters 9, 10
· Lesson
· Minimum of 5 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook)

Instructions
First, return to your topic chosen in the week three assignment.
· Answer this question: What are the personal and/or communal ethical factors that may be involved in determining the moral position of either side in that debate?
· Next, articulate and then evaluate the ethical positions using Kantian ethics (that is, the categorical imperative) relative to the long standing debate (that is your topic chosen in the week three assignment).
· Finally, create a complete annotated bibliography for 5 academic scholarly sources. You will annotate each source. The sources should be relevant to your topic chosen in the week three assignment.
Include the following:
· Publication details
· Annotation (a detailed reading of the source)
Each annotation section should include the following:
· Summarize key points and identify key terms (using quotation marks, and citing a page in parentheses).
· Describe the controversies or “problems” raised by the articles.
· State whether you agree or disagree and give reasons.
· Locate one or two quotations to be used in the final research project.
· Evaluate the ways in which this article is important and has helped you focus your understanding.
Use the following as a model:

APA Reference
Mezirow, J. (2003). Transformative learning as discourse. Journal of Transformative Education, 1(1), 58-63.

Annotation Example
In this article, Mezirow (2003) makes a distinction between “instrumental” and “communicative” learning. “Instrumental learning” refers to those processes which measure and gauge learning, such as tests, grades, comments, quizzes, attendance records and the like. “Communicative learning,” on the other hand, refers to understanding created over time between individuals in what Mezirow calls “critical-dialectical-discourse,” (p. 59) which is a fancy way of saying, important conversation between 2 or more speakers. Another key idea Mezirow discusses is “transformative learning,” (p. 61) which changes the mind, the heart, the values and beliefs of people so that they may act better in the world. Mezirow argues that “hungry, desperate, homeless, sick, destitute, and intimidated people obviously cannot participate fully and freely in discourse” (p. 59). On the one hand, he is right: there are some people who cannot fully engage because their crisis is so long and deep, they are prevented. But, I don’t think Mezirow should make the blanket assumption that everyone in unfortunate circumstances is incapable of entering the discourse meaningfully. One thing is certain: if we gave as much attention to the non-instrumental forms of intelligence–like goodness, compassion, forgiveness, wonder, self-motivation, creativity, humor, love, and other non-measured forms of intelligence in our school curriculums, we’d see better people, actors in the world, and interested investigators than we currently have graduating high school.

Writing Requirements (APA format)

· Length: 4-7 pages (not including title page or references page)
· 1-inch margins
· Double spaced
· 12-point Times New Roman font
· Title page

Grading

This activity will be graded based on the Assignment Grading Rubric.

Below is the previous work done on this assignment. I attached it so that it will help you form the Annotated Bibliography require for it…thanks

Abortion

An abortion entails a process where an unborn baby is removed before full development, hence termination of life and the pregnancy. Is such action right or wrong? Well, it all depends on the aspects surrounding the reasons behind the act. According to society and personal reasons, there are different moral perceptions of abortions and it’s rightness or wrongness. First moral reason against abortion bit that the fetus is a growing living human being and should not be killed. This reason can be right depending on the different views of different people in the situation.
Another moral reasoning against abortion is that it is inhumane to kill a growing fetus without giving it a chance to live. This moral reason views the fetus as a human being or a human being. Hence, it reasons out that the child should be given a chance to live, breathe and make something out of their lives. Most decisions concerning abortion are because of financial or underage pregnancy where the parents are undecided on the course of action to take how to raise and nurture a baby; hence go for the abortion option.
Similar to the moral reasons against it, there are also moral reasons that support the practice. One moral reasoning is that women should not be seen only as vessels but also as humans. Hence, they should have individual choices on whether to be mothers or live without a child. An instance of this is a raped girl who got pregnant after being violated. Does she have a right to choose whether to get an abortion or raise a child who is the reminder of the events? Based on such circumstances, the mother decides to make the moral choice.
Another moral reasoning that supports the act is that a fetus has no moral status. Hence, it is not morally wrong to terminate the life of something without a moral status. Based on this reasoning, similar to other species and animals. Moral stature plays a crucial role in determining whether it is right to kill a fetus or not. If we consider a fetus as a no moral being, then it can be supportive of killing or sustaining the life of a fetus. The moral decision concerning abortion is based on people’s reasons behind the right and wrong of abortion.

Ethical Egoism

The aspects behind ethical egoism state that one should act only by self-interest and not care about the impact the actions have on others and the community. Through ethical Egoism, abortion is the mother’s choice of action and should be decided without concern for any view, advice, opinion, or impact. The abortion based on ethical Egoism also ignores community rules and guidelines and is acted upon based on her choice. For the woman has a choice on how to treat her baby and body, or the world makes her choices.
The ethical argument surrounding ethical Egoism is the conviction for committing murder. Most women who decide to abort decide based on personal reasons and perceptions and not community views. Is abortion a crime of committing murder (Girn, R. 2006)? Well, this is what raises the bar on the right and wrong of abortion. Ethical Egoism supports such actions as the mother is seen as a criminal for the decision of not being a mother. Ethical Egoism on abortion gives a woman a voice and choice to make the decision of what is right and wrong based on her opinion.

Social Contract Ethicist

A social contract ethicist would completely not agree with the abortion act. This is because social contract ethicists believe that people live in a society and communities based on rules and guidelines to set the political and ethical standards of behavior. Today, almost all governments worldwide have set rules against abortion, with some even setting a jail sentence or

punishment in the even one is associated with ( Ethics Unwrapped, 2021). Based on living standards and practices on laws set by society, abortion is a crime and considered murder and social supports that the fetus has a right to live.
A social contract ethicist would also say that society’s rules hold the principles and practices of behavior. They would justify their position by siding with society’s rules and policies. The topic of abortion has been discussed worldwide by people across nations and states, regions, and ethnic groups; hence the topic has a collision between personal and national perceptions of the act. According to my personal reason, the best cause of action is that the unanimous decision is based on parents’ choices on whether to keep or terminate the pregnancy. If this decision is taken from them, then equal support should be given to care and raise the child to be born.
The AMA Code of ethics opinion 4.2.7 does not prohit a physician from conducting an abortion according to medical practice and circumstances. The ANA code of nurses states that a nurse has a right not to participate in a case based on ethical ground, and hence the decision lies with the nurse on whether to be a party to abortion.

Reference

Ethics Unwrapped, (2021) Social Contract Theory. Retrieved from https://ethicsunwrapped.utexas.edu/glossary/social-contract-theory
Jones, K., & Chaloner, C. (2007). Ethics of abortion: the arguments for and against. Nursing Standard, 21(37), 45+. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A164948786/AONE?u=anon~64b1c833&sid=googleScholar&xid=10da9bdb
Girn, R. (2006) Defending the Selfish Choice: Abortion Rights and the Morality of Egoism. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/amp/s/theundercurrent.org/defending-the-selfish-choice-abortion-rights-and-the-morality-of-egoism/amp/

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