Analyzing the Need for Change in an Organization ( critical Thinking ) Personal Change Tools (100 points) Organizational change is a process that can be c

Analyzing the Need for Change in an Organization ( critical Thinking ) Personal Change Tools (100 points)
Organizational change is a process that can be c

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Analyzing the Need for Change in an Organization ( critical Thinking ) Personal Change Tools (100 points)
Organizational change is a process that can be complex. Change efforts are not easily carried out but can be successful through the use of various resources and tools. As explored within the Interactive Lecture, change often starts with knowing what to change, continues through how to change, and then concludes with when to change.It is important to remember that the same change processes that guide organizations can also be used in one’s personal life.For this Critical Thinking Assignment, address the components below:

Think about a major change that you experienced within the past five years. Explain details about this change, specifically focusing on the reason for the change and the importance of the change in your life.
Explain which change model (i.e., Nadler and Tushman’s Congruence Model, Sterman’s Systems Dynamics Model, Quinn’s Competing Values Model, Greiner’s Model of Organizational Growth, or Stacey’s Complexity Theory) most applied to your change experience. Provide details about why you selected this model and why it was the best choice as compared to the other models.
Analyze the steps associated with the model and how these steps were followed during your time of change.
Looking back on the change process and experience, what improvements would you make to ensure enhanced change-related success? Why?

Your well-written paper should meet the following requirements:

Be 4-5 pages in length, which does not include the title and reference pages, which are never a part of the content minimum requirements.
Use APA style guidelines.
Support your submission with course material concepts, principles, and theories from the textbook and at least three scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles.
It is strongly encouraged that you submit all assignments into the Turnitin Originality Check prior to submitting it to your instructor for grading. If you are unsure how to submit an assignment into the Originality Check tool, review the Turnitin Originality Check – Student Guide for step-by-step instructions.

Required:
Chapter 3 in Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit
Bhatt, P. (2019). Employees’ perception about change in jobs and organisational orientations. International Journal of Employment Studies, 27(1), 34–63.
Neville, L., & Schneider, B. (2021). Why is it so hard to change organizational culture? It’s the people. Organization Development Review, 53(1), 41-46.
Sokol, M. (2021). Why is it so hard to change organizational culture? Organization Development Review, 53(1), 40. Chapter 3: What to Change in an Organization: Frameworks

1

Chapter Overview
Change leaders must understand both the HOW and the WHAT of change. The focus here is on WHAT needs to change

Open systems organizational frameworks are valuable assessment tools of what needs to change. Nadler and Tushman’s Congruence Model is explored in detail

The non-linear and interactive nature of organizations is explored to make sense of their complexity

Quinn’s competing values model is used to create a bridge between individual and organizational levels of analysis

Organizational change over time is discussed
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
2

2

The Change Path Model
Use Diagnostic Frameworks in Ch.3 to better understand:
How to Change &
What to Change
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
3

Awakening
Chapter 4

Acceleration
Chapter 9

Institutionalization
Chapter 10

Mobilization
Chapters 5 through 8

Open Systems Perspective
Organizations exchange information, material & energy with their environment. They are not isolated

A system is the product of its interrelated and interdependent parts
It represents a complex web of interrelationships, not a chain of linear cause–effect relationships

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
4

Dynamic Complexity because
Systems are:
Constantly changing
Tightly coupled
Governed by feedback
Nonlinear
History-dependent

Self-organizing
Adaptive
Characterized by trade-offs
Counterintuitive
Policy resistant

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
5

Open Systems Perspective (cont.)
A system seeks equilibrium and one at equilibrium will only change if energy is applied

Individuals within a system may have views of the system’s function and purpose that differ greatly from those of others

Things that occur within and/or to open systems should not be viewed in isolation. See them as interconnected, interdependent components of a complex system
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
6

Nadler & Tushman’s
Organizational Congruence Model
Input

Environment
(PESTEL)

Resources

History / Culture
Output

Systems

Unit

Individual

Informal Organization
Work
Formal Organization
People
Strategy

Transformation Process
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
7

7

Nadler & Tushman’s
Organizational Congruence Model
Input

Environment
(PESTEL)

Resources

History / Culture
Output

Systems

Unit

Individual

Informal Organization
Work
Formal Organization
People
Strategy

Transformation Process
8

Environmental Pressures for Change
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.

8

Analyzing Organizations Using Nadler and Tushman’s Model
Use the congruence model to describe your organization or an organization you are familiar with. Categorize the key components (environment, strategy, tasks, etc.). What outputs are desired? Are they achieved?

Is the strategy in line with organization’s environmental inputs? Are the transformation processes aligned well with the strategy? How do they interact to produce the outputs?

When you evaluate your organization’s outputs, are there things your organization should address?

Are there aspects of how your organization works that you have difficulty understanding? If so, what resources could you access to help with this analysis?
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
9

9

Linear Event View of the World
Goal
Situation
Gap / Problem
Decision / Action
Results
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
10

Issues & Problems with the Linear View
Time delays and lag effects related to variables and outcomes you are trying to manage (e.g., inventory stocks and flows, customer satisfaction and purchase decisions)

Complexity makes cause–effect relationships difficult to predict and track

Attribution Errors and False Learning often result from the above

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
11

A Feedback Model
Decisions

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
12

Environment

Decisions

But Feedback Models are Messier
Goals
Decisions
Environment
Goals of Others
Action of Others
Side Effects

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
13

Quinn’s Competing Values Framework
Flexibility

Control
Internally Externally
Focused Focused

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
14

14

Quinn’s Competing Values Framework (cont.)
Flexibility

Control
Internally Externally
Focused Focused

Human Resources View
Open Systems View
Internal Processes View
Rational Economic View
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
15

Quinn’s Competing Values Framework (cont.)
Flexibility

Control
Internally Externally
Focused Focused

Human Resources View
How to work with individuals and
groups
Teamwork and HR dept.
Mentor and group facilitator roles
Open Systems View
How to use power and manage
change
The challenge of change
Innovator and broker roles
Internal Processes View
How to understand & control
the work unit
Consolation and continuity
Internal monitor and coordinator
roles
Rational Economic View
How to stimulate individual and
collective achievement
Maximization of output
Producer and director roles
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
16

Greiner’s Five Phases of Organizational Growth

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
17

Stacy’s Complexity Theory and
Organizational Change
Organizations are webs of nonlinear feedback loops that are connected with individuals and organizations through similar webs

These feedback systems operate in stable and unstable states of equilibrium, even to the point at which chaos ensues

Organizations are inherently paradoxes, pulled by forces of stability and instability

Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
18

18

Stacy’s Complexity Theory and Organizational Change (cont.)
If organizations give into forces of stability, they become ossified and change impaired

If organizations succumb to forces of instability, they will disintegrate

Success is when organizations exist between frozen stability and chaos
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
19

19

Stacy’s Complexity Theory and Organizational Change (cont.)
Short-term dynamics (or noise) are characterized by irregular cycles and discontinuous trends, but long-term trends are identifiable

A successful organization faces an unknowable specific future because things can and do happen

Agents can’t control the long-term future—they can only act in relation to the short term

Long-term development is a spontaneous, self-organizing process that may give rise to new strategic directions

It is through this process that managers create and come to know the environments and long-term futures of their organizations
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
20

20

Summary
When assessing organizations, think of them as open systems—webs of interconnected and interdependent relationships that interact with the environment

Change often originates in the external environment.

Change upsets the internal equilibrium in an organization and thus may be resisted.

Both evolutionary and revolutionary change is needed for organizational growth

We need to understand the WHY and WHAT of change.

Models in this chapter have focused on the WHAT of change

Change is not clean and linear—it is messy
Deszca, Ingols & Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub.
21

Evolution stages
Revolution stages
Size of
organization
LARGE
SMALL
YOUNG
Age of Organization
MATURE
1: Growth through
CREATIVITY
1: Crisis of
LEADERSHIP
2: Growth through
DIRECTION
2: Crisis of
AUTONOMY
3: Growth through
DELEGATION
4: Growth through
COORDINATION
5: Growth through
COLLABORATION
3: Crisis of
CONTROL
4: Crisis of
RED TAPE
5: Crisis of ?
PHASE 1
PHASE 2
PHASE 3
PHASE 4
PHASE 5

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